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John Smith's Map of New England 




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along the 

New England Coast 

of the John Carter Brown Library 


Published by Houghton, Mifflin & Company 

1 9 ° 5 







Giovanni da Verrazano, 1524 

Narragansett Bay 1 

David Ingram, 1568 

Maine 25 

Bartholomew Gosnold, 1602 

Buzzard's Bay 31 

Martin Pring, 1603 

Plymouth Harbour 51 

Samuel de Champlain, 1605 

Maine and Massachusetts . . . . 65 
George Waymouth, 1605 

St. George's River 99 

George Popham and Ralegh Gilbert, 1607 

Kenebeck River 153 

Henry Hudson, 1609 

Penobscot and the Fishing Banks . .177 
Samuel Argall, 16 10 

Penobscot Bay 193 

John Smith, 1614 

Monhegan 211 

Thomas Dermer, 16 19 

Maine and Cape Cod 249 

Christopher Levett, 1624 

York and Portland 259 


John Smith's Map of New England . . Frontispiece 

From Smith's Description of New England, London, 1 6 1 6. 

Facsimile Title-page of Brereton's Briefe and 
True Relation 32 

'This book, published in 1 602, gives an account of the voy- 
age of Bartholomew Gosnold, and is the earliest book in 
English relating to New England 

Map of Port St. Louis (Plymouth Bay) ... 52 
From Champ Iain's Voyages, 16 13 Edition 

Map of the Mouth of the Kennebec .... 66 
From Champlain s Voyages, 16 13 Edition 

Facsimile Title-page of Rosier's True Relation 100 

This book, published in 1605, gives an account of the voy- 
age of George Waymouth, and is the second book in Eng- 
lish relating to New England 

Facsimile Title-page of Smith's Description of 
New England, 1616 212 

// is in this book that the name " New England " first 
occurs, being substituted by Captain Smith for "North 
Virginia " 

(^ufoatmi fca IStaa^ano 



Giovanni da Verrazano, a Florentine sailor in the 
service of France who had attracted the royal attention 
by his successful attacks on Spanish commerce, was com- 
missioned by Francis I, in the spring of 1523, to cross 
the Atlantic in search for a sea route to Cathay. In 
April, the agents of Spain in France notified their govern- 
ment that Verrazano was ready to start. 'Two months 
later, the Spanish authorities learned that he had re- 
turned to La Rochelle, bringing the captured vessels in 
which Cortes had shipped the treasure gathered from the 
Aztec lords of Mexico. The proposed voyage of discovery 
was not, however, merely a blind for this attack on the 
Spanish West Indian fleet. Verrazano refitted his ships 
and made a second start, only to be driven back by a Bis- 
cay an storm. With his single remaining seaworthy ves- 
sel, he finally got away for the West. In March, 1 524, 
land was sighted, probably near Cape Fear, on the Caro- 
lina coast. After looking in vain for a harbour toward 
the south, he turned northward and followed the shore 
line as far as Maine or Nova Scotia. 

Verrazano arrived in Dieppe before the eighth of 
July, the date of his report to the King. An Italian 
version of this letter was printed at Venice in 1556 by 
Ramusio, from whose " Navigationi" it was translated 
into English by Hakluyt, for his "Divers Voyages," 
printed in 1582. A somewhat different contemporary 
manuscript copy, also in Italian, is preserved at Florence. 
This was printed by the New York Historical Society in 
1 841, with a translation which has been revised for the 
present volume. 

Giovanni da Verrazano 

to his Most Serene Majesty the 

SINCE the tempests which we encoun- 
tered on the northern coasts, I have not 
written to your most Serene and Chris- 
tian Majesty concerning the four ships sent out 
by your orders on the ocean to discover new 
lands, because I thought you must have been 
before apprized of all that had happened to us 
— that we had been compelled by the impetu- 
ous violence of the winds to put into Brittany in 
distress with only the two ships Normandy and 
Dauphine ; and that after having repaired these 
ships, we made a cruise in them, well armed, 
along the coast of Spain, as your Majesty must 
have heard, and also of our new plan of con- 
tinuing our intended voyage with the Dauphine 
alone ; being now returned from this voyage, I 
proceed to give your Majesty an account of our 

On the 1 7th of last January we set sail from 
a desolate rock near the island of Madeira, be- 
longing to his most Serene Majesty, the King of 
Portugal, with fifty men, having provisions suffi- 
cient for eight months, arms and other warlike 



Giovanni da Verrazano 



munition and naval stores. Sailing westward 
with a light and pleasant easterly breeze, in 
twenty-five days we ran eight hundred leagues. 
On the 14th of February we encountered as 
violent a hurricane as any ship ever weathered, 
from which we escaped unhurt by the divine 
assistance and goodness, to the praise of the glo- 
rious and fortunate name of our good ship, that 
had been able to support the violent tossing 
of the waves. Pursuing our voyage towards the 
West, a little northwardly, in twenty-four days 
more, having run four hundred leagues, we 
reached a new country, which had never before 
been seen by any one, either in ancient or mod- 
ern times. At first it appeared to be very low, 
but on approaching it to within a quarter of 
a league from the shore we perceived, by the 
great fires near the coast, that it was inhabited. 
We perceived that it stretched to the south, and 
coasted along in that direction in search of 
some port, in which we might come to anchor, 
and examine into the nature of the country, 
but for fifty leagues we could find none in 
which we could lie securely. Seeing the coast 
still stretch to the south, we resolved to change 
our course and stand to the northward, and as 
we still had the same difficulty, we drew in 
with the land and sent a boat on shore. Many 
people who were seen coming to the sea-side 
fled at our approach, but occasionally stopping, 

they I 

Carolina Coast 

they looked back upon us with astonishment, 
and some were at length induced, by various 
friendly signs, to come to us. These showed 
the greatest delight on beholding us, wonder- 
ing at our dress, countenances and complexion. 
They then showed us by signs where we could 
more conveniently secure our boat, and offered 
us some of their provisions. That your Majesty 
may know all that we learned, while on shore, 
of their manners and customs of life, I will re- 
late what we saw as briefly as possible. They 
go entirely naked, except that about the loins 
they wear skins of small animals like martens 
fastened by a girdle of plaited grass, to which 
they tie, all round the body, the tails of other 
animals hanging down to the knees ; all other 
parts of the body and the head are naked. Some 
wear garlands similar to birds' feathers. 

The complexion of these people is black, not 
much different from that of the Ethiopians ; 
their hair is black and thick, and not very long, 
it is worn tied back upon the head in the form 
of a little tail. In person they are of good pro- 
portions, of middle stature, a little above our 
own, broad across the breast, strong in the 
arms, and well formed in the legs and other 
parts of the body; the only exception to their 
good looks is that they have broad faces, but 
not all, however, as we saw many that had 
sharp ones, with large black eyes and a fixed 


Giovanni da Verrazano 


expression. They are not very strong in body, 
but acute in mind, active and swift of foot, as 
far as we could judge by observation. In these 
last two particulars they resemble the people 
of the east, especially those the most remote. 
We could not learn a great many particulars of 
their usages on account of our short stay among 
them, and the distance of our ship from the 

We found not far from this people another 
whose mode of life we judged to be similar. 
The whole shore is covered with fine sand, 
about fifteen feet thick, rising in the form of 
little hills about fifty paces broad. Ascending 
farther, we found several arms of the sea which 
make in through inlets, washing the shores on 
both sides as the coast runs. An outstretched 
country appears at a little distance rising some- 
what above the sandy shore in beautiful fields 
and broad plains, covered with immense forests 
of trees, more or less dense, too various in col- 
ours, and too delightful and charming in ap- 
pearance to be described. I do not believe that 
they are like the Hercynian forest or the rough 
wilds of Scythia, and the northern regions full 
of vines and common trees, but adorned with 
palms, laurels, cypresses, and other varieties un- 
known in Europe, that send forth the sweetest 
fragrance to a great distance, but which we 
could not examine more closely for the reasons 


I'he Carolina s 

before given, and not on account of any diffi- 
culty in traversing the woods, which, on the 
contrary, are easily penetrated. 

As the Orient stretches around this country, 
I think it cannot be devoid of the same medi- 
cinal and aromatic drugs, and various riches of 
gold and the like, as is denoted by the colour 
of the ground. It abounds also in animals, as 
deer, stags, hares, and many other similar, and 
with a great variety of birds for every kind of 
pleasant and delightful sport. It is plentifully 
supplied with lakes and ponds of running water, 
and being in the latitude of 34, the air is salu- 
brious, pure and temperate, and free from the 
extremes of both heat and cold. There are no 
violent winds in these regions, the most pre- 
valent are the north-west and west. In summer, 
the season in which we were there, the sky is 
clear, with but little rain: if fogs and mists 
are at any time driven in by the south wind, 
they are immediately dissipated, and at once 
it becomes serene and bright again. The sea is 
calm, not boisterous, and its waves are gentle. 
Although the whole coast is low and without 
harbours, it is not dangerous for navigation, 
being free from rocks and bold, so that within 
four or five fathoms from the shore there is 
twenty-four feet of water at all times of tide, 
and this depth constantly increases in a uni- 
form proportion. The holding ground is so 



Giovanni da Verrazano 


good that no ship can part her cable, however 
violent the wind, as we proved by experience ; 
for while riding at anchor on the coast, we 
were overtaken by a gale in the beginning of 
March, when the winds are high, as is usual in 
all countries, we found our anchor broken before 
it started from its hold or moved at all. 

We set sail from this place, continuing to 
coast along the shore, which we found stretch- 
ing out to the west; the inhabitants being 
numerous, we saw everywhere a multitude of 
fires. While at anchor on this coast, there 
being no harbour to enter, we sent the boat on 
shore with twenty-five men to obtain water, 
but it was not possible to land without endan- 
gering the boat, on account of the immense 
high surf thrown up by the sea, as it was an 
open roadstead. Many of the natives came to 
the beach, indicating by various friendly signs 
that we might trust ourselves on shore. One 
of their noble deeds of friendship deserves to 
be made known to your Majesty. A young 
sailor was attempting to swim ashore through 
the surf to carry them some knick-knacks, as 
little bells, looking-glasses, and other like trifles; 
when he came near three or four of them he 
tossed the things to them, and turned about to 
get back to the boat, but he was thrown over 
by the waves, and so dashed by them that he 
lay as it were dead upon the beach. When these 


Carolina Coast 

people saw him in this situation, they ran and 
took him up by the head, legs and arms, and 
carried him to a distance from the surf; the 
young man, finding himself borne off in this 
way, uttered very loud shrieks in fear and dis- 
may, while they answered as they could in 
their language, showing him that he had no 
cause for fear. Afterwards they laid him down 
at the foot of a little hill, when they took off 
his shirt and trowsers, and examined him, 
expressing the greatest astonishment at the 
whiteness of his skin. Our sailors in the boat 
seeing a great fire made up, and their com- 
panion placed very near it, full of fear, as is usual 
in all cases of novelty, imagined that the natives 
were about to roast him for food. But as soon 
as he had recovered his strength after a short 
stay with them, showing by signs that he wished 
to return aboard, they hugged him with* great 
affection, and accompanied him to the shore, 
then leaving him, that he might feel more se- 
cure, they withdrew to a little hill, from which 
they watched him until he was safe in the boat. 
This young man remarked that these people 
were black like the others, that they had shin- 
ing skins, middle stature, and sharper faces, 
and very delicate bodies and limbs, and that 
they were inferior in strength, but quick in 
their minds; this is all that he observed of 



Giovanni da Verrazano 


New 'Jersey 

Departing hence, and always following the 
shore, which stretched to the north, we came, 
in the space of fifty leagues, to another land, 
which appeared very beautiful and full of the 
largest forests. We approached it, and going 
ashore with twenty men, we went back from 
the coast about two leagues, and found that the 
people had fled and hid themselves in the woods 
for fear. By searching around we discovered in 
the grass a very old woman and a young girl of 
about eighteen or twenty, who had concealed 
themselves for the same reason ; the old woman 
carried two infants on her shoulders, and be- 
hind her neck a little boy eight years of age; 
when we came up to them they began to shriek 
and make signs to the men who had fled to the 
woods. We gave them a part of our provisions, 
which they accepted with delight, but the girl 
would not touch any; every thing we offered to 
her being thrown down in great anger. We 
took the little boy from the old woman to carry 
with us to France, and would have taken the 
girl also, who was very beautiful and very tall, 
but it was impossible because of the loud shrieks 
she uttered as we attempted to lead her away; 
having to pass some woods, and being far from 
the ship, we determined to leave her and take 
the boy only. We found them fairer than the 
others, and wearing a covering made of certain 
plants, which hung down from the branches of 


Delaware Coast 


the trees, tying them together with threads of 
wild hemp; their heads are without covering 
and of the same shape as the others. Their 
food is a kind of pulse which there abounds, 
different in colour and size from ours, and of a 
very delicious flavour. Besides they take birds 
and fish for food, using snares and bows made of 
hard wood, with reeds for arrows, in the ends 
of which they put the bones of fish and other 
animals. The animals in these regions are wilder 
than in Europe from being continually molested 
by the hunters. We saw many of their boats 
made of one tree twenty feet long and four feet 
broad, without the aid of stone or iron or other 
kind of metal. In the whole country for the 
space of two hundred leagues, which we visited, 
we saw no stone of any sort. To hollow out 
their boats they burn out as much of a log as is 
requisite, and also from the prow and stern to 
make them float well on the sea. The land, in 
situation, fertility and beauty, is like the other, 
abounding also in forests filled with various 
kinds of trees, but not of such fragrance, as it 
is more northern and colder. 

We saw in this country many vines growing 
naturally, which entwine about the trees, and 
run up upon them as they do in the plains of 
Lombardy. These vines would doubtless pro- 
duce excellent wine if they were properly cul- 
tivated and attended to, as we have often seen 



Giovanni da Verrazano 

New York 

the grapes which they produce very sweet and 
pleasant, and not unlike our own. They must 
be held in estimation by them, as they care- 
fully remove the shrubbery from around them, 
wherever they grow, to allow the fruit to ripen 
better. We found also wild roses, violets, lilies, 
and many sorts of plants and fragrant flowers 
different from our own. We cannot describe 
their habitations, as they are in the interior of 
the country, but from various indications we 
conclude they must be formed of trees and 
shrubs. We saw also many grounds for conjec- 
turing that they often sleep in the open air, 
without any covering but the sky. Of their 
other usages we know nothing ; we believe, 
however, that all the people we were among 
live in the same way. 

After having remained here three days, rid- 
ing at anchor on the coast, as we could find 
no harbour we determined to depart, and coast 
along the shore to the north-east, keeping sail 
on the vessel only by day, and coming to an- 
chor by night. After proceeding one hundred 
leagues, we found a very pleasant situation 
among some steep hills, through which a very 
large river, deep at its mouth, forced its way 
to the sea; from the sea to the estuary of the 
river, any ship heavily laden might pass, with 
the help of the tide, which rises eight feet. 
But as we were riding at anchor in a good 


New York Harbour 


berth, we would not venture up in our vessel, 
without a knowledge of the mouth ; therefore 
we took the boat, and entering the river, we 
found the country on its banks well peopled, 
the inhabitants not differing much from the 
others, being dressed out with the feathers of 
birds of various colours. They came towards 
us with evident delight, raising loud shouts of 
admiration, and showing us where we could 
most securely land with our boat. We passed 
up this river, about half a league, when we 
found it formed a most beautiful lake three 
leagues in circuit, upon which they were row- 
ing thirty or more of their small boats, from 
one shore to the other, filled with multitudes 
who came to see us. All of a sudden, as is 
wont to happen to navigators, a violent contrary 
wind blew in from the sea, and forced us to 
return to our ship, greatly regretting to leave 
this region which seemed so commodious and 
delightful, and which we supposed must also 
contain great riches, as the hills showed many 
indications of minerals. Weighing anchor, we 
sailed fifty leagues toward the east, as the coast 
stretched in that direction, and always in sight 
of it ; at length we discovered an island of a tri- 
angular form, about ten leagues from the main- 
land, in size about equal to the island of Rhodes, 
having many hills covered with trees, and well 
peopled, judging from the great number of 


Block Island 

x 4 

Giovanni da Verrazano 


fires which we saw all around its shores; we 
gave it the name of your Majesty's illustrious 

We did not land there, as the weather was 
unfavourable, but proceeded to another place, 
fifteen leagues distant from the island, where 
we found a very excellent harbour. Before en- 
tering it, we saw about twenty small boats full 
of people, who came about our ship, uttering 
many cries of astonishment, but they would not 
approach nearer than within fifty paces; stop- 
ping, they looked at the structure of our ship, 
our persons and dress, afterwards they all raised 
a loud shout together, signifying that they were 
pleased. By imitating their signs, we inspired 
them in some measure with confidence, so that 
they came near enough for us to toss to them 
some little bells and glasses, and many toys, 
which they took and looked at, laughing, and 
then came on board without fear. Among them 
were two kings more beautiful in form and 
stature than can possibly be described ; one was 
about forty years old, the other about twenty- 
four, and they were dressed in the following 
manner : The oldest had a deer's skin around 
his body, artificially wrought in damask figures, 
his head was without covering, his hair was tied 
back in various knots ; around his neck he wore 
a large chain ornamented with many stones of 
different colours. The young man was similar 


Narragansett Bay 

in his general appearance. This is the finest 
looking tribe, and the handsomest in their cos- 
tumes, that we have found in our voyage. They 
exceed us in size, and they are of a very fair com- 
plexion ; some of them incline more to a white, 
and others to a tawny colour ; their faces are 
sharp, their hair long and black, upon the adorn- 
ing of which they bestow great pains; their eyes 
are black and sharp, their expression mild and 
pleasant, greatly resembling the antique. I say 
nothing to your Majesty of the other parts of 
the body, which are all in good proportion, 
and such as belong to well-formed men. Their 
women are of the same form and beauty, very 
graceful, of fine countenances and pleasing ap- 
pearance in manners and modesty; they wear 
no clothing except a deer skin, ornamented like 
those worn by the men ; some wear very rich 
lynx skins upon their arms, and various orna- 
ments upon their heads, composed of braids of 
hair, which also hang down upon their breasts 
on each side. Others wear different ornaments, 
such as the women of Egypt and Syria use. The 
older and the married people, both men and 
women, wear many ornaments in their ears, 
hanging down in the oriental manner. We saw 
upon them several pieces of wrought copper, 
which is more esteemed by them than gold, as 
this is not valued on account of its colour, but 
is considered by them as the most ordinary of 



Giovanni da Verrazano 

the metals — yellow being the colour especially- 
disliked by them ; azure and red are those in 
highest estimation with them. Of those things 
which we gave them, they prized most highly 
the bells, azure crystals, and other toys to hang 
in their ears and about their necks ; they do not 
value or care to have silk or gold stuffs, or other 
kinds of cloth, nor implements of steel or iron. 
When we showed them our arms, they expressed 
no admiration, and only asked how they were 
made; the same was the case with the looking- 
glasses, which they returned to us, smiling, as 
soon as they had looked at them. They are 
very generous, giving away whatever they have. 
We formed a great friendship with them, and 
one day we entered into the port with our ship, 
having before rode at the distance of a league 
from the shore, as the weather was adverse. 
They came off to the ship with a number of 
their little boats, with their faces painted in 
divers colours, showing us real signs of joy, 
bringing us of their provisions, and signifying 
to us where we could best ride in safety with 
our ship, and keeping with us until we had 
cast anchor. We remained among them fifteen 
days, to provide ourselves with many things of 
which we were in want, during which time 
they came every day to see our ship, bringing 
with them their wives, of whom they were 
very careful; for, although they came on board 


Narragansett Bay 


themselves, and remained a long while, they 
made their wives stay in the boats, nor could 
we ever get them on board by any entreaties 
or any presents we could make them. One of 
the two kings often came with his queen and 
many attendants, to see us for his amusement; 
but he always stopped at the distance of about 
two hundred paces, and sent a boat to inform us 
of his intended visit, saying they would come 
and see our ship — this was done for safety, and 
as soon as they had an answer from us they came 
off, and remained awhile to look around; but 
on hearing the annoying cries of the sailors, the 
king sent the queen, with her attendants, in a 
very light boat, to wait, near an island a quarter 
of a league distant from us, while he remained 
a long time on board, talking with us by signs, 
and expressing his fanciful notions about every 
thing in the ship, and asking the use of all. 
After imitating our modes of salutation, and 
tasting our food, he courteously took leave of 
us. Sometimes, when our men stayed two or 
three days on a small island, near the ship, for 
their various necessities, as sailors are wont to 
do, he came with seven or eight of his attend- 
ants, to inquire about our movements, often 
asking us if we intended to remain there long, 
and offering us everything at his command, and 
then he would shoot with his bow, and run up 
and down with his people, making great sport 



Giovanni da Verrazano 

for us. We often went five or six leagues into 
the interior, and found the country as pleasant 
as is possible to conceive, adapted to cultiva- 
tion of every kind, whether of corn, wine or 
oil ; there are open plains twenty-five or thirty 
leagues in extent, entirely free from trees or 
other hindrances, and of so great fertility, that 
whatever is sown there will yield an excellent 
crop. On entering the woods, we observed that 
they might all be traversed by an army ever so 
numerous ; the trees of which they were com- 
posed, were oaks, cypresses, and others unknown 
in Europe. We found, also, apples, plumbs, fil- 
berts, and many other fruits, but all of a differ- 
ent kind from ours. The animals, which are in 
great numbers, as stags, deer, lynxes, and many 
other species, are taken by snares, and by bows, 
the latter being their chief implement ; their 
arrows are wrought with great beauty, and for 
the heads of them, they use emery, jasper, hard 
marble, and other sharp stones, in the place of 
iron. They also use the same kind of sharp 
stones in cutting down trees, and with them 
they construct their boats of single logs, hol- 
lowed out with admirable skill, and sufficiently 
commodious to contain ten or twelve persons ; 
their oars are short, and broad at the end, and 
are managed in rowing by force of the arms 
alone, with perfect security, and as nimbly as 
they choose. We saw their dwellings, which are 


Narragansett Bay 

l 9 

of a circular form, of about ten or twelve paces 
in circumference, made of logs split in halves, 
without any regularity of architecture, and cov- 
ered with roofs of straw, nicely put on, which 
protect them from wind and rain. There is 
no doubt that they could build stately edifices 
if they had workmen as skilful as ours, for the 
whole sea-coast abounds in shining stones, crys- 
tals, and alabaster, and for the same reason it has 
coverts and retreats for animals. They change 
their habitations from place to place as circum- 
stances of situation and season may require; this 
is easily done, as they have only to take with 
them their mats, and they have other houses pre- 
pared at once. The father and the whole family 
dwell together in one house in great numbers ; 
in some we saw twenty-five or thirty persons. 
Their food is pulse, as with the other tribes, 
which is here better than elsewhere, and more 
carefully cultivated ; in the time of sowing 
they are governed by the moon, the sprouting 
of grain, and many other ancient usages. They 
live by hunting and fishing, and they are long- 
lived. If they fall sick, they cure themselves 
without medicine, by the heat of the fire, and 
their death at last comes from extreme old age. 
We judge them to be very affectionate and char- 
itable towards their relatives — making loud 
lamentations in their adversity, and in their 
misery calling to mind all their good fortune. 



Giovanni da Verrazano 


At their departure out of life, their relations 
mutually join in weeping, mingled with sing- 
ing, for a long while. This is all that we could 
learn of them. This region is situated in the 
parallel of Rome, being 41 ° 40' of north lati- 
tude, but much colder from accidental circum- 
stances, and not by nature, as I shall hereafter 
explain to your Majesty, and confine myself at 
present to the description of its local situation. 
It looks towards the south, on which side the 
harbour is half a league broad ; afterwards, upon 
entering it, the extent between the coast and 
north is twelve leagues, and then enlarging itself 
it forms a very large bay, twenty leagues in 
circumference, in which are five small islands, 
of great fertility and beauty, covered with large 
and lofty trees. Among these islands any fleet, 
however large, might ride safely, without fear 
of tempests or other dangers. Turning towards 
the south, at the entrance of the harbour, on 
both sides, there are very pleasant hills, and 
many streams of clear water, which flow down 
to the sea. In the midst of the entrance, there 
is a rock of freestone, formed by nature, and 
suitable for the construction of any kind of 
machine or bulwark for the defence of the 

Having supplied ourselves with every thing 
necessary, on the fifth of May we departed 
from the port, and sailed one hundred and fifty 


Narragansett Bay 


leagues, keeping so close to the coast as never 
to lose it from our sight; the nature of the 
country appeared much the same as before, but 
the mountains were a little higher, and all in 
appearance rich in minerals. We did not stop 
to land as the weather was very favourable for 
pursuing our voyage, and the country presented 
no variety. The shore stretched to the east, 
and fifty leagues beyond more to the north, 
where we found a more elevated country, full 
of very thick woods of fir trees, cypresses and 
the like, indicative of a cold climate. The 
people were entirely different from the others 
we had seen, whom we had found kind and 
gentle, but these were so rude and barbarous 
that we were unable by any signs we could 
make, to hold communication with them. 
They clothe themselves in the skins of bears, 
lynxes, seals and other animals. Their food, as 
far as we could judge by several visits to their 
dwellings, is obtained by hunting and fishing, 
and certain fruits, which are a sort of root of 
spontaneous growth. They have no pulse, and 
we saw no signs of cultivation ; the land ap- 
pears sterile and unfit for growing of fruit or 
grain of any kind. If we wished at any time 
to traffick with them, they came to the sea shore 
and stood upon the rocks, from which they 
lowered down by a cord to our boats beneath 
whatever they had to barter, continually crying 


Cape Cod 


Giovanni da Verrazano 

Coast of 

out to us, not to come nearer, and instantly 
demanding from us that which was to be given 
in exchange; they took from us only knives, 
fish hooks and sharpened steel. No regard was 
paid to our courtesies ; when we had nothing 
left to exchange with them, the men at our 
departure made the most brutal signs of disdain 
and contempt possible. Against their will we 
penetrated two or three leagues into the inte- 
rior with twenty-five men ; when we came to 
the shore, they shot at us with their arrows, 
raising the most horrible cries and afterwards 
fleeing to the woods. In this region we found 
nothing extraordinary except vast forests and 
some metalliferous hills, as we infer from see- 
ing that many of the people wore copper ear- 
rings. Departing from thence, we kept along 
the coast, steering north-east, and found the 
country more pleasant and open, free from 
woods, and distant in the interior we saw 
lofty mountains, but none which extended to 
the shore. Within fifty leagues we discovered 
thirty-two islands, all near the main land, small 
and of pleasant appearance, but high and so 
disposed as to afford excellent harbours and 
channels, as we see in the Adriatic gulph, near 
Illyria and Dalmatia. We had no intercourse 
with the people, but we judge that they were 
similar in nature and usages to those we were 
last among. After sailing between east and 


Coast of Maine 

2 3 

north the distance of one hundred and fifty 
leagues more, and finding our provisions and 
naval stores nearly exhausted, we took in wood 
and water and determined to return to France, 
having discovered 502, that is 700 leagues of 
unknown lands. 

As to the religious faith of all these tribes, 
not understanding their language, we could not 
discover either by sign or gestures any thing 
certain. It seemed to us that they had no reli- 
gion nor laws, nor any knowledge of a First 
Cause or Mover, that they worshipped neither 
the heavens, stars, sun, moon nor other planets ; 
nor could we learn if they were given to any 
kind of idolatry, or offered any sacrifices or 
supplications, or if they have temples or houses 
of prayer in their villages ; — our conclusion 
was, that they have no religious belief whatever, 
but live in this respect entirely free. All which 
proceeds from ignorance, as they are very easy 
to be persuaded, and imitated us with earnest- 
ness and fervour in all which they saw us do as 
Christians in our acts of worship. 

On board the ship Dauphine, in the port of 
Dieppe in Normandy, the 8th of July, 1524. 
Your humble servitor, 

John de Verrazzano. 

Batoto Jngram 



David Ingram was one of the companions of Sir John 
Hawkins, when he was forced to take refuge from a 
storm in the Mexican harbour of San Juan de Ulua, in 
the autumn ofi 568. After several days of amicable traf- 
fic for the slaves brought by Hawkins from Africa, the 
English ships were suddenly attacked by an overpower- 
ing Spanish force. Hawkins succeeded in gathering 
most of his men into two of the vessels, and infighting 
his way out of the harbour. The escape from danger 
was only temporary, however, for the two ships were 
so overcrowded that it quickly became evident that they 
could not possibly make the voyage across the Atlantic 
to England. About a hundred men were therefore set 
on shore, on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. 
Three of these men succeeded in making their way across 
the central and eastern portion of what is now the 
United States. A French fur-trader found them some- 
where on the eastern Maine coast and carried them back 
to Europe. 

One of these trans-continental wanderers, David 
Ingram, wrote an account of his adventures, in which he 
mingled much fiction with some probable truth. The 
paragraphs reprinted here contain the most plausible 
portion of his narrative. There are numerous contem- 
porary manuscript copies of Ingram 's narrative, testi- 
fying to the curiosity which it excited at the time. It was 
first printed in 1582 by Hakluyt, who omitted it from 
his subsequent publications because of its dubious veracity. 

THE Relacon of Davyd 
Ingram of Barkinge in 
the Corn of Essex Sayl- 
or, being nowe abowt the age 
of fortye yeares, of sundrye 
thinges which he with others 
did see in Travelinge by lande 
from the moste northerlie parte 
of the Baye olMezico where he 
with many others weare sett on 
shoare by }A X Hawkyns throughe 
a greate parte of Ameryca vn- 
till they came within fivetye 
leagues or theraboutes of Cape 
Britton which he reported vn- 
to Sr.ffrauncys IValsingham Kt. 
her Majesties principall Secre- 
tary e and to Sr. George Peckham 
Knight and dyuers others of 




David Ingram 



St. "John 

good iudgment and Creditt in 
August and September Anno 
Domini 1582. 

ABOUTE the beginninge of Octobar 
Anno Domini 1568 Davyd Ingram 
with the reste of his Company be- 
inge an C. [i. e. 100] persons in all weare sett 
on lande by Mr. John Hawkyns about sixe 
leagues to the weste of the Ryvar Camina or Rio 
de Mynas which standethe aboute 1 40 leagues 
weste and by northe from the Cape of floryda 
he hathe travayled in those Countryes from 
beyonde terra florida extendinge towardes the 
Cape Britton about eleaven monethes in the 
whole, and aboute seaven monethes therof in 
those Countryes which lye towardes the northe 
of the Ryu of Maii. In which tyme as the 
saide Ingram thincketh he travayled by land 
2000 myles at the leaste, and never contynued 
in any one place above 3 or 4. daies savinge 
onlye at the Cyttie of Balma where he stayed 
VI or VII. daies. 

.*» i*» ,*» kla iji %Xm «J> 

«Y" "X* *T m *T* •** *•* *T" 

After longe travayle the foresaid Davyd In- 
gram with his twoe Companions Browne and 
Twyde came to the head of a Ryvar called 
Gugida which is 60 leagues weste from Cape 



Britton where they vnderstode by the people 
of that Country e, of the any vail of a Christyan, 
whervppon they made there repayer to the Sea 
syde, and there founde a frenche Capitaine 
named Mounsieur Champaine whoe toke them 
into his Shippe and brought them vnto New- 
haven, and from thence they weare transported 
into England Anno Domini 1569. 

This Mounsieur Champaine with dyvers of 
his Company was brought into the village of 
Baryniathe aboute twentye myles vpp into the 
Countrye by the saide Ex c and his twoe Com- 
panions by whose meanes he had a trade with 
the people, of dyvers sortes of fyne furres and 
of great redde leaves of Trees almoste a yarde 
longe and aboute a foote broade which he 
thincketh are good for dyenge. 

Alsoe the saide Mounsieur Champaine had 
there for exchange of tryflinge wares a good 
quantytie of rude and vnwrought sylver. 

He saieth furthar that dyvers of the saide 
frenche men which weare in the saide Shippe 
called the Gargaryne, are yet lyvinge in 

vppon the Coaste of fFraunce as 
he thincketh, for he did speake with some of 
them within these three yeares. 

Aboute a fortnight after there cominge from 
Newhaven into England this Ex' and his twoe 
Companyons came to Mr. John Hawkynswhoe 
had sett them on shoare vppon the Baye of 




David Ingram 

Great Lakes 

Mezico, and vnto eache of them he gave a Re- 

Richard Browne his Companyon was slayne 
aboute five yeares paste in the Elizabeth of Mr. 
Cockens of London, and Richard Twyde his 
other Companyon dyed at Ratclif in John Sher- 
woodes howse there aboute three yeares paste. 

Grando is a word of salutacion, as amonge vs 
good morrowe good even god save you, and such 

Garriccona a Kinge. 

Garraccona a Lorde. 

Tona Bredde. 

Carningnaz, the privyties. 

Kerrucca the sonne. 

Alsoe the saide Davyd Ingram travelinge to- 
wardes the northe founde the mayne Sea vp- 
pon the northe syde of Ameryca, and travayled 
in the sighte therof the space of twoe whole 
dayes, where the people signify ed vnto him that 
they had seene Shippes on that Coaste and did 
drawe vppon the grounde the Shape and signe 
of Shippes and of there Sales and flagges which 
thinge especyallye provethe the passage of the 
northe weste and is agreable to the experyence 
of the Spanishe Captaine Vasques de Coronado, 
founde a Shippe of China or Caytaia vppon the 
northe weste of Ameryca. 

3Sart|)oIometD <©o0ttoto 



Bartholomew Gosnold and Bartholomew Gilbert, 
the latter a son of Sir Humphrey, visited the south- 
eastern New England coast in the summer of 1602, for 
the purpose of finding out what chances there were for 
profitable trading in that region. 'They probably chose 
this locality because it had not before been explored by 
English sailors, and because they sailed without a license 
from Sir Walter Ralegh, to whom had been granted 
the exclusive right of English trade with that part of 
the world. Had they succeeded in returning undetected 
to England, nobody to-day would know anything about 
the details of their voyage. A sudden drop in the price 
of sassafras showed Ralegh that something was wrong, 
and investigation soon brought their cargo to light. As 
some men prominent in the court circle had taken shares 
in the Gosnold-Gilbert venture, a compromise was ar- 
ranged to avoid public scandal, and Ralegh allowed the 
report to go out that he had authorized the voyage. An 
account of the voyage, written by John Brereton, was 
published for circulation among those who it was hoped 
might subscribe toward the cost of equipping another 
expedition to the same locality. 

other gentlemen their aflbciats, by the [m 


permiilion of tlie honourable -knight, a 
Sir Walter Ralegh, &r. 

Written by Af.IohnBrerecon 
one of the voyage. 

t ; ivW ^^it^' Whereimto is annexed a Trcatife, 

pJ&^?J3)i£(£Yi.!3i ofM. EdaurdHtiycs,t:ont.t:inMv important 
W^0Mrr^?"^ inducements for the pbnrinc in thofe 
parts,and finding, a pafi age that 
way to the South lea, 
and Cl)ina, 

With Jitters infirtitttoiis cf jjjeciaU momint ■ 

ncirly /tidei in ihU fetond tr.:~ 





Impenjis Gcor. BilTiop. 




Earliest English Bool- relating to Mew England 


Sir Walter Ralegh, Kt., 
Captaine of her Maiesties 
Guards, Lord Warden of 
the Stanneries, Lieutenant 
of Cornwall, and Gouern- 
our of the Isle of Jersey. 

HONOURABLE sir, being earnestly 
requested by a deere friend, to put 
downe in writing, some true rela- 
tion of our late performed voyage to the North 
parts of Virginia; at length I resolued to satisfie 
his request, who also imboldened me, to direct 
the same to your honourable consideration ; to 
whom indeed of duetie it perteineth. 

May it please your Lordship therefore to 
understand, that upon the sixe and twentieth 
of March 1602, being Friday, we went from 
Falmouth, being in all, two & thirtie persons, in 
a small barke of Dartmouth, called The Concord, 
holding a course for the North part of Virginia : 
and although by chance the winde fauoured 
vs not at first as we wished, but inforced vs so 






Bartholomew Gosnold 





farre to the Southward, as we fell with S. Marie, 
one of the islands of the Azores (which was not 
much out of our way) yet holding our course 
directly from thence, we made our iourney 
shorter (than hitherto accustomed) by the better 
part of a thousand leagues, yet were wee longer 
in our passage than we expected ; which hap- 
pened, for that our barke being weake, we were 
loth to presse her with much saile ; also, our 
sailers being few, and they none of the best, we 
bare (except in faire weather) but low saile ; be- 
sides, our going vpon an vnknowen coast, made 
vs not ouer-bolde to stand in with the shore, but 
in open weather; which caused vs to be cer- 
teine daies in sounding, before we discouered 
the coast, the weather being by chance, some- 
what foggie. But on Friday the foureteenth of 
May, early in the morning, we made the land, 
being full of faire trees, the land somewhat 
low, certeine hummocks or hilles lying into the 
land, the shore ful of white sand, but very stony 
or rocky. And standing faire alongst by the 
shore, about twelue of the clocke the same day, 
we came to an anker, where sixe Indians, in a 
Baske-shallop with mast and saile, an iron grap- 
ple, and a kettle of copper, came boldly aboord 
vs, one of them apparelled with a wastcoat and 
breeches of blacke serdge, made after our sea- 
fashion, hose and shoes on his feet ; all the rest 
(sauing one that had a paire of breeches of blue 


Cape Cod 

cloth) were all naked. These people are of tall 
stature, broad and grim visage, of a blacke swart 
complexion, their eie-browes painted white; 
their weapons are bowes and arrowes : it seemed 
by some words and signes they made, that some 
Basks or of S. lohn de Luz, haue fished or 
traded in this place, being in the latitude of 
43 degrees. But riding heere, in no very good 
harbour, and withall, doubting the weather, 
about three of the clocke the same day in the 
afternoone we weighed, & standing Southerly 
off into sea the rest of that day and the night 
following, with a fresh gale of winde, in the 
morning we found ourselues embayed with a 
mightie headland ; but comming to an anker 
about nine of the clocke the same day, within a 
league of the shore, we hoised out the one halfe 
of our shallop, and captaine Bartholomew Gosnold, 
my selfe, and three others, went ashore, being a 
white sandie and very bolde shore ; and march- 
ing all that afternoon with our muskets on our 
necks, on the highest hilles which we saw (the 
weather very hot) at length we perceiued this 
headland to be parcell of the maine, and sun- 
drie Islands lying almost round about it : so 
returning (towards euening) to our shallop (for 
by that time, the other part was brought ashore 
and set together) we espied an Indian, a yong 
man, of proper stature, and of a pleasing coun- 
tenance ; and after some familiaritie with him, 



Cape Cod 


Bartholomew Gosnold 



we left him at the sea side, and returned to our 
ship, where, in fiue or sixe houres absence, we 
had pestered our ship so with Cod fish, that 
we threw numbers of them ouer-boord againe : 
and surely, I am persuaded that in the moneths 
of March, April, and May, there is vpon this 
coast, better fishing, and in as great plentie, as 
in Newfoundland ': for the sculles of Mackerell, 
herrings, Cod, and other fish, that we dayly saw 
as we went and came from the shore, were won- 
derfull ; and besides, the places where we tooke 
these Cods (and might in a few daies haue laden 
our ship) were but in seuen faddome water, and 
within lesse than a league of the shore; where, 
in Newfound-land they fish in fortie or fiftie 
fadome water, and farre off. From this place, 
we sailed round about this headland, almost all 
the points of the compasse, the shore very bolde: 
but as no coast is free from dangers, so I am 
persuaded, this is as free as any ; the land some- 
what lowe, full of goodly woods, but in some 
places plaine: at length we were come amongst 
many faire Islands, which we had partly dis- 
cerned at our first landing ; all lying within a 
league or two one of another, and the outer- 
most not aboue sixe or seuen leagues from the 
maine : but comming to an anker vnder one of 
them, which was about three or foure leagues 
from the maine, captaine Gosnold, my selfe, and 
some others, went ashore, & going round about 


Martha's Vineyard 


it, we found it to be foure English miles in 
compasse, without house or inhabitant, sauing a 
little old house made of boughes, couered with 
barke, an olde piece of a weare of the Indians, 
to catch fish, and one or two places, where they 
had made fires. The chiefest trees of this Island, 
are Beeches and Cedars ; the outward parts all 
ouergrowen with lowe bushie trees, three or 
foure foot in height, which beare some kinde 
of fruits, as appeared by their blossomes; Straw- 
beries, red and white, as sweet and much bigger 
than ours in England, Rasberies, Gooseberies, 
Hurtleberies, and such; an incredible store of 
Vines, as well in the wooddie part of the Island, 
where they run upon euery tree, as on the out- 
ward parts, that we could not goe for treading 
vpon them : also, many springs of excellent 
sweet water, and a great standing lake of fresh 
water, neere the sea side, an English mile in 
compasse, which is mainteined with the springs 
running exceeding pleasantly thorow the wood- 
die grounds which are very rockie. Here are 
also in this Island, great store of Deere, which 
we saw, and other beasts, as appeared by their 
tracks ; as also diuers fowles, as Cranes, Hern- 
shawes, Bitters, Geese, Mallards, Teales, and 
other fowles, in great plenty ; also, great store of 
Pease, which grow in certeine plots all the Is- 
land ouer. On the North side of this Island we 
found many huge bones and ribbes of Whales. 



Bartholomew Gosnold 

This Island, as also all the rest of these Islands, 
are full of all sorts of stones fit for building ; the 
sea sides all couered with stones, many of them 
glistering and shining like minerall stones, and 
very rockie : also, the rest of these Islands are 
replenished with these commodities, and vpon 
some of them, inhabitants ; as vpon an Island 
to the Northward, and within two leagues of 
this ; yet wee found no townes, nor many of their 
houses, although we saw manie Indians, which 
are tall big boned men, all naked, sauing they 
couer their priuy parts with a blacke tewed skin, 
much like a Black-smithes apron, tied about 
their middle and betweene their legs behinde : 
they gaue vs of their fish readie boiled (which 
they carried in a basket made of twigges, not 
unlike our osier) whereof we did eat, and iudged 
them to be fresh water fish : they gaue vs also 
of their Tabacco, which they drinke greene, 
but dried into powder, very strong and plea- 
sant, and much better than any I haue tasted in 
England : the necks of their pipes are made of 
clay hard dried (whereof in that Island is great 
store both red and white) the other part, is a 
piece of hollow copper, very finely closed and 
semented together: we gaue vnto them certeine 
trifles, as kniues, points, and such like, which 
they much esteemed. From hence we went to 
another Island, to the Northwest of this, and 
within a league or two of the maine, which we 


Buzzard' 's Bay 


found to be greater than before we imagined, 
being 16 English miles at the least in com- 
passe ; for it conteineth many pieces or necks of 
land, which differ nothing fro seuerall Islands, 
sauing that certeine banks of small bredth do 
like bridges ioyne them to this Island : on the 
outsides of this Island are many plaine places 
of grasse, abundance of Strawberies & other 
berries before mentioned : in mid May we did 
sowe in this Island (as for a triall) in sundry 
places, Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Pease, which in 
foureteene daies were sprung up nine inches and 
more : the soile is fat and lustie ; the vpper crust, 
of gray colour; but a foot or lesse in depth, of 
the colour of our hempe-lands in England ; and 
being thus apt for these and the like graines ; the 
sowing or setting (after the ground is cleansed) 
is no greater labour, than if you should set or 
sowe in one of our best prepared gardens in Eng- 
land. This Island is full of high timberd Oaks, 
their leaues thrise so broad as ours ; Cedars, strait 
and tall; Beech, Elme, Hollie, Walnut trees in 
abundance, the fruit as bigge as ours, as appeared 
by those we found under the trees, which had 
lien all the yeere vngathered; Haslenut trees, 
Cherry trees, the leafe, barke and bignesse not 
differing from ours in England, but the stalke 
beareth the blossomes or fruit at the end thereof, 
like a cluster of Grapes, forty or fifty in a bunch ; 
Sassafras trees great plentie all the Island ouer, a 




Bartholomew Gosnold 

tree of high price and profit; also, diuers other 
fruit trees, some of them with strange barks, of 
an Orange colour, in feeling soft and smoothe 
like veluet: in the thickest parts of these woods, 
you may see a furlong or more round about. 
On the Northwest side of this Island, neere to 
the sea side, is a standing Lake of fresh water, 
almost three English miles in compasse, in 
the middest whereof stands a plot of wooddie 
ground, an acre in quantitie or not aboue : this 
Lake is full of small Tortoises, and exceedingly 
frequented with all sorts of fowles before re- 
hearsed, which breed, some lowe on the banks, 
and others on lowe trees about this Lake in 
great abundance, whose yoong ones of all sorts 
we tooke and eat at our pleasure: but all these 
fowles are much bigger than ours in England. 
Also, in euery Island, and almost in euery part 
of euery Island, are great store of Ground nuts, 
fortie together on a string, some of them as 
bigge as hennes egges ; they grow not two inches 
vnder ground: the which nuts we found to be 
as good as Potatoes. Also, diuers sorts of shell- 
fish, as Scallops, Muscles, Cockles, Lobsters, 
Crabs, Oisters, and Wilks, exceeding good and 
very great. But not to cloy you with particular 
rehearsall of such things as God & Nature hath 
bestowed on these places, in comparison where- 
of, the most fertil part of al England is (of it 
selfe) but barren ; we went in our light-horsman 


Buzzard' 's Bay 

4 1 

fr5 this Island to the maine, right against this 
Island some two leagues off, where comming 
ashore, we stood a while like men rauished at 
the beautie and delicacie of this sweet soile ; 
for besides diuers cleere Lakes of fresh water 
(whereof we saw no end) Medowes very large 
and full of greene grasse ; euen the mostwooddy 
places (I speake onelyof such as I saw) doe grow 
so distinct and apart, one tree from another, 
vpon greene grassie ground, somewhat higher 
than the Plaines, as if Nature would shew her- 
selfe aboue her power, artificiall. Hard by, we 
espied seuen Indians ; and comming vp to them, 
at first they expressed some feare ; but being 
emboldned by our courteous vsage, and some 
trifles which we gaue them, they followed vs to 
a necke of land, which we imagined had beene 
seuered from the maine ; but finding it other- 
wise, we perceiued a broad harbour or riuers 
mouth, which ranne vp into the maine : but 
because the day was farre spent, we were forced 
to returne to the Island from whence we came, 
leauing the discouerie of this harbour, for a 
time of better leasure : of thegoodnesseof which 
harbour, as also of many others thereabouts, 
there is small doubt, considering that all the 
Islands, as also the maine (where we were) is all 
rockie grounds and broken lands. Now the 
next day, we determined to fortifie our selues 
in the little plot of ground in the midst of the 



4 2 

Bartholomew Gosnold 

Lake aboue mentioned, where we built an house, 
and couered it with sedge, which grew about 
this lake in great abundance; in building where- 
of, we spent three weeks and more: but the 
second day after our comming from the maine, 
we espied 9 canowes or boats, with fiftie Indians 
in them, comming toward vs from this part of 
the maine, where we, two daies before, landed; 
and being loth they should discouer our forti- 
fication, we went out on the sea side to meet 
them; and comming somewhat neere them, 
they all sat downe upon the stones, calling aloud 
to vs (as we rightly ghessed) to doe the like, a 
little distance from them : hauing sat a while 
in this order, captaine Gosnold willed me to go 
vnto them, to see what countenance they would 
make ; but as soone as I came vp vnto them, 
one of them, to whom I had giuen a knife two 
daies before in the maine, knew me (whom I 
also very wel remembred) and smiling vpon me, 
spake somewhat vnto their lord or captaine, 
which sat in the midst of them, who presently 
rose vp and tooke a large Beauer skin from one 
that stood about him, and gaue it vnto me, 
which I requited for that time the best I could : 
but I pointing towards captaine Gosnold, made 
signes vnto him, that he was our captaine, and 
desirous to be his friend, and enter league with 
him, which (as I perceiued) he vnderstood, and 
made signes of ioy : whereupon captaine Gos- 

Buzzard* s Bay 


nold with the rest of his companie, being 
twentie in all, came vp vnto them; and after 
many signes of gratulations (captain Gosnold 
presenting their L. with certeine trifles which 
they wondred at, and highly esteemed) we 
became very great friends, and sent for meat 
aboord our shallop, and gaue them such meats 
as we had then readie dressed, whereof they 
misliked nothing but our mustard, whereat they 
made many a sowre face. While wee were thus 
merry, one of them hadconueied a target of ours 
into one of their canowes, which we sufFered, 
onely to trie whether they were in subiection 
to this L. to whom we made signes (by shew- 
ing him another of the same likenesse, and 
pointing to the canowe) what one of his com- 
panie had done : who suddenly expressed some 
feare, and speaking angerly to one about him 
(as we perceiued by his countenance) caused it 
presently to be brought backe againe. So the 
rest of the day we spent in trading with them 
for Furres, which are Beauers, Luzernes, Mar- 
terns, Otters, Wild-cat skinnes very large and 
deepe Furre, blacke Foxes, Conie skinnes, of 
the colour of our Hares, but somewhat lesse, 
Deere skinnes very large, Seale skinnes, and 
other beasts skinnes, to vs vnknowen. They 
haue also great store of Copper, some very 
redde, and some of a paler colour ; none of them 
but haue chaines, earrings or collars of this 

mettall : 


Bartholomew Gosnold 

mettall : they head some of their arrows here- 
with, much like our broad arrow heads, very 
workmanly made. Their chaines are many 
hollow pieces semented together, ech piece of 
the bignesse of one of our reeds, a finger in 
length, ten or twelue of them together on a 
string, which they weare about their necks : 
their collars they weare about their bodies like 
bandelieres a handfull broad, all hollow pieces, 
like the other, but somewhat shorter, foure 
hundred pieces in a collar, very fine and euenly 
set together. Besides these, they haue large 
drinking cups, made like sculles, and other 
thinne plates of Copper, made much like our 
boare-speare blades, all which they so little 
esteeme, as they offered their fairest collars or 
chaines, for a knife or such like trifle, but 
we seemed little to regard it ; yet I was desir- 
ous to vnderstand where they had such store of 
this mettall, and made signes to one of them 
(with whom I was verie familiar) who taking a 
piece of Copper in his hand, made a hole with 
his finger in the ground, and withall, pointed 
to the maine from whence they came. They 
strike fire in this manner ; euery one carrieth 
about him in a purse of tewed leather, a Miner- 
all stone (which I take to be their Copper) and 
with a flat Emerie stone (wherewith Glasiers 
cut glasse, and Cutlers glase blades) tied fast 
to the end of a little sticke, gently he striketh 


Buzzard'' 's Bay 


vpon the Minerall stone, and within a stroke 
or two, a sparke falleth vpon a piece of Touch- 
wood (much like our Spunge in England) and 
with the least sparke he maketha fire presently. 
We had also of their Flaxe, wherewith they 
make many strings and cords, but it is not so 
bright of colour as ours in England : I am per- 
swaded they haue great store growing vpon 
the maine, as also Vines and many other rich 
commodities, which we, wanting both time and 
meanes, could not possibly discouer. Thus they 
continued with vs three daies, euery night re- 
tiring themselues to the furthermost part of our 
Island two or three miles from our fort : but the 
fourth day they returned to the maine, pointing 
fiue or six times to the Sun, and once to the 
maine, which we vnderstood, that within fiue 
or six daies they would come from the maine 
to vs againe : but being in their canowes a little 
from the shore, they made huge cries & shouts 
of ioy vnto vs; and we with our trumpet and 
cornet, and casting vp our cappes into the aire, 
made them the best farewell we could : yet sixe 
or seuen of them remained with vs behinde, 
bearing vs company euery day into the woods, 
and helpt vs to cut and carie our Sassafras, 
and some of them lay aboord our ship. These 
people, as they are exceeding courteous, gentle 
of disposition, and well conditioned, excelling 
all others that we haue seene ; so for shape 


4 6 

Bartholomew Gosnold 

of bodie and louely fauour, I thinke they ex- 
cell all the people of America ; of stature much 
higher than we ; of complexion or colour, 
much like a darke Oliue ; their eie-browes and 
haire blacke, which they weare long, tied vp 
behinde in knots, whereon they pricke feath- 
ers of fowles, in fashion of a crownet : some of 
them are blacke thin bearded; they make beards 
of the haire of beasts : and one of them offered 
a beard of their making to one of our sailers, 
for his that grew on his face, which because it 
was of a red colour, they iudged to be none of 
his owne. They are quicke eied, and stedfast 
in their looks, fearelesse of others harmes, as in- 
tending none themselues; some of the meaner 
sort giuen to filching, which the very name of 
Saluages (not weighing their ignorance in good 
or euill) may easily excuse : their garments are 
of Deere skins, and some of them weare Furres 
round and close about their necks. They pro- 
nounce our language with great facilitie ; for 
one of them one day sitting by me, vpon occa- 
sion I spake smiling to him these words : How 
now [sir ha} are you so saucie with my Tabacco : 
which words (without any further repetition) 
he suddenly spake so plaine and distinctly, as if 
he had beene a long scholar in the language. 
Many other such trials we had, which are heere 
needlesse to repeat. Their women (such as we 
saw) which were but three in all, were but lowe 


Buzzard'' 's Bay 


of stature, their eie-browes, haire, apparell, and 
maner of wearing, like to the men, fat, and very 
well fauoured, and much delighted in our corn- 
pane ; the men are very dutifull towards them. 
And truely, the holsomnesse and temperature 
of this Climat, doth not onely argue this people 
to be answerable to this description, but also 
of a perfect constitution of body, actiue, strong, 
healthfull, and very wittie, as the sundry toies 
of theirs cunningly wrought, may easily wit- 
nes. For the agreeing of this Climat with vs 
(I speake of my selfe, & so I may iustly do for 
the rest of our companie) that we found our 
health & strength all the while we remained 
there, so to renew and increase, as notwith- 
standing our diet and lodging was none of the 
best, yet not one of our company (God be 
thanked) felt the least grudging or inclination 
to any disease or sicknesse, but were much fatter 
and in better health than when we went out 
of England. But after our barke had taken in 
so much Sassafras, Cedar, Furres, Skinnes, and 
other commodities, as were thought conue- 
nient ; some of our company that had promised 
captaine Gosnold to stay, hauing nothing but 
a sauing voyage in their minds, made our com- 
pany of inhabitants (which was small enough 
before) much smaller ; so as captaine Gosnold 
seeing his whole strength to consist but of 
twelue men, and they but meanly prouided, 


4 8 

Bartholomew Gosnold 

determined to returne for England, leauing this 
Island (which he called Elizabeths Island) with 
as many true sorrowfull eies, as were before 
desirous to see it. So the 1 8 of June, being Fri- 
day, we weighed, and with indifferent faire 
winde and weather came to anker the 23 of 
July, being also Friday (in all, bare fiue weeks) 
before Exmouth. 

Your Lordships to command, 

lohn Br ere ton. 

A briefe Note of such commodities as we saw 
in the countrey notwithstanding our small 
time of stay. 


SAssafras trees, the roots 
whereof at 3. s. the 
pound are 3 3 6.1. the 
Cedars tall and straight, in 

great abundance. 
Cypres trees. 

Walnut trees great store. 

Haslenut trees. 
Cherry trees. 

Cotten trees. 
Other fruit trees to vs vn- 



*-^ Hernshawes. 







Ospreis and Hawks. 



BuzzarcCs Bay 










Blacke-birds with carna- 

Pease growing 


tion wings. 


Sorrell, & manie other 

"The finder of our Sassafras 

herbs wherewith they 

in these parts, was one 

made fallets. 

Master Robert Meriton. 



TP\Eere in great store, 
-*—^ very great and large. 


" " Tortoises,both on 

land and sea. 





Blacke Foxes. 






Wilde-Cats,verie large and 

Thorn backe. 



Dogs like Foxes, blacke 


and sharpe nosed. 




Fruits, Plants, and Herbs. 


' 1 ^Abacco, excellent 
■*- sweet and strong. 



Vines in more plenty than 


in France. 

Ground-nuts, good meat, 

& also medicinable. 



Bartholomew Gosnold 

O Nakes foure foot in length, and sixe inches about, 
^ which the Indians eat for daintie meat, the skinnes 
whereof they vse for girdles. 

Mettals and Stones. 

/^Opper in great abun- Stones of a blue metal- 

^-^ dance. line colour, which we 

Emerie stones for Glasiers take to be Steele oare. 

& Cutlers. Stones of all sorts for 

Alabaster very white. buildings. 

Stones glistering and shin- Cley, red and white. 

inglike Minerall stones. 



Martin Pring, who became more famous ten years 
later in the East India trade, and who rose to the dignity 
of " General! to the Fraternity of the 'Trinitie House " at 
Bristol, was selected by sundry of the chief est merchants 
of that town in 1 603 to represent their interests on a 
voyage to the region where Gosnold and Gilbert had 
gathered a profitable cargo of sassafras. He was given 
the charge of"a small ship called the Speed-well in bur- 
then about fiftie tunnes, manning the same with some 
thirtie men and Boyes . . . with a Barke called the Dis- 
coverer, of six and twentie tunnes or thereabout, being 
thirteene men and a Boy in all in that Barked They 
made land on the Maine coast, and after following the 
northern shore of Massachusetts Bay for a ways, struck 
across to the southwest, hitting upon Plymouth harbour. 
Here there was abundance of sassafras, and the ships' 
companies made a camp on shore while they gathered 
their cargo. 

Pring wrote an account of the voyage for Richard 
Hakluyt, who had persuaded the Bristol merchants to 
make the venture. Samuel Purchas, who came into pos- 
session of Hakluyt' s papers, printed the narrative at 
London in 161$, in the fourth volume of "Purchas his 

- — 1 


set out from the Citie of 
Bristol/ at the charge of the 
chiefest Merchants and In- 
habitants of the said Citie 
with a small Ship and a Barke 
for the discouerie of the 
North part of Virginia, 

WE set saile from Milford Hauen 
(where the winds had stayed vs a 
fortnight, in which space we heard 
of Queen Elizabeths death) the tenth of Aprill 
1603. In our course we passed by the lies of 
the A fores, had first sight of the Pike, and after- 
ward of the Hand of Cueruo and F lores, and after 
we had runne some fiue hundred leagues, we fell 
with a multitude of small Hands on the North 
Coast of Virginia, in the latitude of 43. degrees, 
the of Iune, which Hands wee found very 

pleasant to behold, adorned with goodly grasse 
and sundry sorts of Trees, as Cedars, Spruce, 
Pines, and Firre-trees. Heere wee found an 






Martin Pring 

excellent fishing for Cods, which are better then 
those of New-found-land, and withall we saw 
good and Rockie ground fit to drie them vpon : 
also we see no reason to the contrary, but that 
Salt may bee made in these parts, a matter of 
no small importance. We sayled to the South- 
west end of these Hands, and there rode with 
our ships vnder one of the greatest. One of them 
we named Foxe I/and, because we found those 
kind of beasts thereon. So passing through the 
rest with our Boates to the mayne Land, which 
lieth for a good space North-east and South- 
west, we found very safe riding among them, 
in sixe, seuen, eight, ten and twelue fathomes. 
At length comming to the Mayne in the latitude 
of 43. degrees and an halfe, we ranged the same 
to the South-west. In which course we found 
foure Inlets, the most Easterly whereof was 
barred at the mouth, but hauing passed ouer the 
barre, wee ranne vp into it fiue miles, and for a 
certaine space found very good depth, and com- 
ming out againe, as we sailed South-westward, 
we lighted vpon two other Inlets, which vpon 
our search we found to pierce not farre into the 
Land, the fourth and most Westerly was the 
best, which we rowed vp ten or twelue miles. 
In all these places we found no people, but 
signes of fires where they had beene. Ho wbeit we 
beheld very goodly Groues and Woods replen- 
ished with tall Okes, Beeches, Pine-trees, Firre- 


Plymouth Harbour 


trees, Hasels, Wich-hasels and Maples. We saw 
here also sundry sorts of Beasts, as Stags, Deere, 
Beares, Wolues, Foxes, Lusernes, and Dogges 
with sharpe noses. But meeting with no Sas- 
safras, we left these places with all the foresaid 
Hands, shaping our course for Sauage Rocke dis- 
couered the yeere before by Captain e Gosno/d, 
where going vpon the Mayne we found peo- 
ple, with whom we had no long conuersation, 
because here also we could find no Sassafras. 
Departing hence we bare into that great Gulfe 
which Captaine Gosnold ouer-shot the yeere be- 
fore, coasting and finding people on the North 
side thereof. Not yet satisfied in our expecta- 
tion, we left them and sailed ouer, and came to 
an Anchor on the South side in the latitude of 
4 1 . degrees and odde minute : where we went 
on Land in a certaine Bay, which we called 
Whitson Bay, by the name of the Worshipfull 
Master lohn Whitson then Maior of the Citie 
of Bristoll, and one of the chiefs Aduenturers, 
and finding a pleasant Hill thereunto adioyning, 
wee called it Mount Aldworth, for Master Robert 
Aldworths sake a chiefe furtherer of the Voyage, 
as well with his Purse as with his trauell. Here 
we had sufficient quantitie of Sassafras. 

At our going on shore, vpon view of the 
people and sight of the place, wee thought it 
conuenient to make a small baricado to keepe 
diligent watch and ward in, for the aduertize- 


Cape Neddock 



Martin Pring 

ment and succour of our men, while they should 
worke in the Woods. During our abode on 
shore, the people of the Countrey came to our 
men sometimes ten, twentie, fortie or three- 
score, and at one time one hundred and twentie 
at once. We vsed them kindly, and gaue them 
diuers sorts of our meanest Merchandize. They 
did eat Pease and Beanes with our men. Their 
owne victuals were most of fish. 

We had a youth in our company that could 
play vpon a Gitterne, in whose homely Mu- 
sicke they tooke great delight, and would giue 
him many things, as Tobacco, Tobacco-pipes, 
Snakes skinnes of sixe foot long, which they 
vse for Girdles, Fawnes skinnes, and such like, 
and danced twentie in a Ring, and the Gitterne 
in the middest of them, vsing many Sauage 
gestures, singing lo, la, lo, la, la, lo : him that 
first brake the ring, the rest would knocke and 
cry out vpon. Some few of them had plates 
of Brasse a foot long, and halfe a foote broad 
before their breasts. Their weapons are Bowes 
of fiue or sixe foot long of Wich-hasell, painted 
blacke and yellow, the strings of three twists 
of sinewes, bigger then our Bow-strings. Their 
Arrowes are of a yard and an handfull long not 
made of Reeds, but of a fine light wood very 
smooth and round with three long and deepe 
blacke feathers of some Eagle, Vulture, or Kite, 
as closely fastened with some binding matter, as 


Plymouth Harbour 


any Fletcher of ours can glue them on. Their 
Quiuers are full a yard long, made of long 
dried Rushes wrought about two handfuls broad 
aboue, and one handfull beneath with prettie 
workes and compartiments, Diamant wise of 
red and other colours. 

We carried with vs from Bristoll two excel- 
lent Mastiues, of whom the Indians were more 
afraid, then of twentie of our men. One of 
these Mastiues would carrie a halfe Pike in 
his mouth. And one Master Thomas Bridges a 
Gentleman of our company accompanied only 
with one of these Dogs, and passed sixe miles 
alone in the Countrey hauing lost his fellowes, 
and returned safely. And when we would be 
rid of the Sauages company wee would let loose 
the Mastiues, and suddenly with out-cryes they 
would flee away. These people in colour are 
inclined to a swart, tawnie, or Chestnut colour, 
not by nature but accidentally, and doe weare 
their haire brayded in foure parts, and trussed 
vp about their heads with a small knot behind : 
in which haire of theirs they sticke many feath- 
ers and toyes for brauerie and pleasure. They 
couer their priuities only with a piece of leather 
drawne betwixt their twists and fastened to 
their Girdles behind and before : whereunto 
they hang their bags of Tobacco. They seeme 
to bee somewhat iealous of their women, for we 
saw not past two of them, who weare Aprons 



Martin Pring 

of Leather skins before them downe to the 
knees, and a Beares skinne like an Irish Mantle 
ouer one shoulder. The men are of stature some- 
what taller then our ordinary people, strong, 
swift, well proportioned, and giuen to treacherie, 
as in the end we perceiued. 

Their Boats, whereof we brought one to 
Bristol/, were in proportion like a Wherrie of 
the Riuer of Thames, seuenteene foot long and 
foure foot broad, made of the Barke of a Birch- 
tree, farre exceeding in bignesse those of Eng- 
land : it was sowed together with strong and 
tough Oziers or twigs, and the seames couered 
ouer with Rozen or Turpentine little inferiour 
in sweetnesse to Frankincense, as we made tri- 
all by burning a little thereof on the coales at 
sundry times after our coming home : it was 
also open like a Wherrie, and sharpe at both 
ends, sauing that the beake was a little bending 
roundly vpward. And though it carried nine 
men standing vpright, yet it weighed not at 
the most aboue sixtie pounds in weight, a thing 
almost incredible in regard of the largenesse 
and capacitie thereof. Their Oares were flat at 
the end like an Ouen peele, made of Ash or 
Maple very light and strong, about two yards 
long, wherewith they row very swiftly : Passing 
vp a Riuer we saw certaine Cottages together, 
abandoned by the Sauages, and not farre off 
we beheld their Gardens and one among the 


Plymouth Harbour 


rest of an Acre of ground, and in the same was 
sowne Tobacco, Pompions, Cowcumbers and 
such like; and some of the people had Maiz or 
Indian Wheate among them. In the fields we 
found wild Pease, Strawberries very faire and 
bigge, Gooseberries, Raspices, Hurts, and other 
wild fruits. 

Hauing spent three Weeks vpon the Coast 
before we came to this place where we meant 
to stay and take in our lading, according to our 
instructions giuen vs in charge before our set- 
ting forth, we pared and digged vp the Earth 
with shouels, and sowed Wheate, Barley, Oates, 
Pease, and sundry sorts of Garden Seeds, which 
for the time of our abode there, being about 
seuen Weeks, although they were late sowne, 
came vp very well, giuing certaine testimonie 
of the goodnesse of the Climate and of the 
Soyle. And it seemeth that Oade, Hempe, 
Flaxe, Rape-seed and such like which require a 
rich and fat ground, would prosper excellently 
in these parts. For in diuers places here we 
found grasse aboue knee deepe. 

As for Trees the Country yeeldeth Sassafras 
a plant of souereigne vertue for the French 
Poxe, and as some of late haue learnedly writ- 
ten good against the Plague and many other 
Maladies ; Vines, Cedars, Okes, Ashes, Beeches, 
Birch trees, Cherie trees bearing fruit whereof 
wee did eate, Hasels, Wich-hasels, the best 



Martin Pring 

wood of all other to make Sope-ashes withall, 
Walnut-trees, Maples, holy to make Bird-lime 
with, and a kinde of tree bearing a fruit like a 
small red Peare-plum with a crowne or knop 
on the top (a plant whereof carefully wrapped 
vp in earth, Master Robert Salt erne brought to 
Bristoll.) We found also low trees bearing faire 
Cheries. There were likewise a white kind 
of Plums which were growne to their perfect 
ripenesse. With diuers other sorts of trees to 
vs vnknowne. 

The Beasts here are Stags, fallow Deere in 
abundance, Beares, Wolues, Foxes, Lusernes, and 
(some say) Tygres, Porcupines, and Dogges with 
sharpe and long noses, with many other sorts 
of wild beasts, whose Cases and Furres being 
hereafter purchased by exchange may yeeld no 
smal gaine to vs. Since as we are certainly in- 
formed, the Frenchmen brought from Canada the 
value of thirtie thousand Crownes in the yeare 
1604. Almost in Beuers and Otters skinnes 
only. The most vsuall Fowles are Eagles, Vul- 
tures, Hawkes, Cranes, Herons, Crowes, Gulls, 
and great store of other Riuer and Sea-fowles. 
And as the Land is full of Gods good blessings, 
so is the Sea replenished with great abundance 
of excellent fish, as Cods sufficient to lade many 
ships, which we found vpon the Coast in the 
moneth of Iune, Seales to make Oile withall, 
Mullets, Turbuts, Mackerels, Herrings, Crabs, 


Plymouth Harbour 


Lobsters, Creuises and Muscles with ragged 
Pearles in them. 

By the end of Iuly we had laded our small 
Barke called the Discouerer, with as much Sas- 
safras as we thought sufficient, and sent her home 
into England before, to giue some speedie con- 
tentment to the Aduenturers ; who arriued safely 
in Kingrode aboue a fortnight before vs. After 
their departure we so bestirred our selues, that 
our shippe also had gotten in her lading, during 
which time there fell out this accident. On a 
day about noone tide while our men which vsed 
to cut down Sassafras in the Woods were asleepe, 
as they vsed to doe for two houres in the heat 
of the day, there came downe about seuen score 
Sauages armed with their Bowes and Arrowes, 
and enuironed our House or Barricado, wherein 
were foure of our men alone with their Muskets 
to keepe Centinell, whom they sought to haue 
come downe vnto them, which they vtterly 
refused, and stood vpon their guard. Our Mas- 
ter likewise being very carefull and circumspect 
hauing not past two with him in the shippe put 
the same in the best defence he could, lest they 
should haue inuaded the same, and caused a 
piece of great Ordnance to bee shot off, to giue 
terrour to the Indians, and warning to our men 
which were fast asleepe in the Woods : at the 
noyse of which Peece they were a little awaked, 
and beganne a little to call for Foole and Gallant, 




Martin Pring 


their great and fearefull Mastiues, and full qui- 
etly laid themselues downe againe, but beeing 
quickned vp eftsoones againe with a second shot 
they rowsed vp themselues, betooke them to 
their weapons and with their Mastiues, great 
Foole with an halfe Pike in his mouth drew 
downe to their ship : whom when the Indians 
beheld afarre off, with the Mastiue which they 
most feared, in dissembling manner they turned 
all to a iest and sport, and departed away in 
friendly manner : yet not long after, euen the 
day before our departure, they set fire on the 
Woods where wee wrought, which wee did 
behold to burne for a mile space, and the very 
same day that wee weighed Anchor, they came 
downe to the shoare in greater number, to wit, 
very neere two hundred by our estimation, and 
some of them came in their Boates to our ship, 
and would haue had vs come in againe : but 
we sent them backe, and would none of their 

About the eighth or ninth of August, wee 
left this excellent Hauen at the entrance where- 
of we found twentie fathomes water, and rode 
at our ease in seuen fathomes being Land-locked, 
the Hauen winding in compasse like the shell 
of a Snaile, and it is in latitude of one and forty 
degrees and fiue and twentie minutes. 

This by the way is not to be forgotten, that 
our Captaine fell so much to the Northward 


Plymouth Harbour 


because he would find high grounds, where 
commonly the best Hauens are : which also 
fell out to his expectation. We also obserued 
that we could find no Sassafras but in sandie 
ground. In our returne we brought our selues 
into the latitude of eight and thirtie degrees 
about the Azores for certaine causes, and within 
fiue weekes space came from our Port of Vir- 
ginia, into the Soundings of England, but there 
being long encountred with Easterly winds, we 
came at length into Kingrode, the second of 
October 1603. The Discouerer was out fiue 
moneths and an halfe. The Speedwell was out 
sixe moneths vpon the Voyage. 

•amuel be CJjamplain 


Samuel de ChamplainT?^/ demonstrated his talents 
as an observer of unfamiliar regions during a two years' 
trip through the West Indies and to the City of Mexico. 
His report on these travels doubtless commended him to 
the French king, who appointed him in 1 603 to accom- 
pany an expedition which visited the St. Lawrence in 
search of a suitable location for a settlement. The fol- 
lowing year Champlain made another voyage to America 
with Sieur de Monts, who attempted to plant a colony 
in Nova Scotia. The location proving unsatisfactory, 
Champlain made three voyages toward the west, hoping 
to find a place more to his liking. In September, 1604, 
he visited Mount Desert, and sailed up the Penobscot as 
far as Bangor. In the summer of 1605 he sailed along 
the Maine and Massachusetts coasts as far as Nauset 
harbour on the outer shores of Cape Cod. In 1 606 he 
continued his explorations, visiting Gloucester harbour, 
then crossing to Cape Cod, and following the coast around 
to Vineyard Sound. 

Champlain made careful notes of all his observations, 
drawing maps and sketches of all important points. His 
reports were afterwards written out and sent home to 
France, where they were printed, the volumes going 
through several editions. An English translation of 
Champlain s writings, by Dr. Charles P. Otis, with 
editorial notes by the Rev. E. F. Slafter, was issued 
in 1878 by the Prince Society of Boston, by whose cour- 
tesy that translation of chapters vii, viii, and ix of 
Champlain s " Voyages," printed at Paris in 16 13, is 
now reprinted with some verbal changes. 


9 C a 

1» Q 

/ i s 


m « <* v»i «w 

6 7 

Discovery of the Coast of 
the Almouchiquois as far as 
the Forty-Second Degree 
of Latitude, and Details of 
this Voyage. 

ON the 1 8th of the month of June, 
1605, Sieur de Monts set out from 
the Island of St. Croix with some 
gentlemen, twenty sailors, and a savage named 
Panounias, together with his wife, whom he 
was unwilling to leave behind. These we took, 
in order to serve us as guides to the country of 
the Almouchiquois, in the hope of exploring 
and learning more particularly by their aid 
what the character of this country was, espe- 
cially since she was a native of it. 

Coasting along inside of Manan, an island 
three leagues from the main land, we came to 
the Ranges on the seaward side, at one of which 
we anchored, where there was a large number 
of crows, of which our men captured a great 
many, and we called it the Isle aux Corneilles. 
Thence we went to the Island of Monts De- 
serts, at the entrance of the river Norumbegue, 







Samuel de Champlain 

Mouth of 





as I have before stated, and sailed five or six 
leagues among many islands. Here there came 
to us three savages in a canoe from Bedabedec 
Point, where their captain was ; and, after we 
had had some conversation with them, they 
returned the same day. 

On Friday, the ist of July, we set out from 
one of the islands at the mouth of the river, 
where there is a very good harbour for vessels 
of a hundred or a hundred and fifty tons. This 
day we made some twenty-five leagues between 
Bedabedec Point and many islands and rocks, 
which we explored as far as the river Quini- 
bequy, at the mouth of which is a very high 
island, which we called the Tortoise. Between 
the latter and the main land there are some 
scattering rocks, which are covered at full tide, 
although the sea is then seen to break over 
them. Tortoise Island and the river lie south- 
south-east and north-north-west. As you enter, 
there are two medium-sized islands forming the 
entrance, one on one side, the other on the 
other ; and some three hundred paces farther 
in are two rocks, where there is no wood, but 
some little grass. We anchored three hundred 
paces from the entrance in five and six fathoms 
of water. While in this place, we were over- 
taken by fogs, on account of which we resolved 
to enter, in order to see the upper part of the 
river and the savages who live there ; and we set 


Kennebec River 


out for this purpose on the 5th of the month. 
Having made some leagues, our barque came 
near being lost on a rock which we grazed in 
passing. Further on, we met two canoes which 
had come to hunt birds, which for the most 
part are moulting at this season, and cannot 
fly. We addressed these savages by aid of our 
own, who went to them with his wife, who 
made them understand the reason of our com- 
ing. We made friends with them and with the 
savages of this river, who served us as guides. 
Proceeding farther, in order to see their cap- 
tain, named Manthoumermer, we passed, after 
we had gone seven or eight leagues, by some 
islands, straits, and brooks, which extend along 
the river, where we saw some fine meadows. 
After we had coasted along an island some four 
leagues in length, they conducted us to where 
their chief was with twenty-five or thirty sav- 
ages, who as soon as we had anchored, came to 
us in a canoe, separated a short distance from 
ten others, in which were those who accom- 
panied him. Coming near our barque, he made 
an harangue, in which he expressed the plea- 
sure it gave him to see us, and said that he de- 
sired to form an alliance with us and to make 
peace with his enemies through our mediation. 
He said that, on the next day, he would send 
to two other captains of savages, who were in 
the interior, one called Marchin, and the other 


Back River 





Samuel de Champlain 


Hell Gate 

Sasinou, chief of the river Quinibequy. Sieur 
de Monts gave them some cakes and peas, with 
which they were greatly pleased. The next day 
they guided us down the river another way than 
that by which we had come, in order to go to 
a lake ; and, passing by some islands, they left, 
each one of them, an arrow near a cape, where 
all the savages pass, and they believe that if they 
should not do this some misfortune would be- 
fall them, according to the persuasions of the 
devil. They live in such superstitions, and prac- 
tice many others of the same sort. Beyond this 
cape we passed a very narrow waterfall, but not 
without great difficulty ; for, although we had 
a favorable and fresh wind, and trimmed our 
sails to receive it as well as possible, in order to 
see whether we could not pass it in that way, we 
were obliged to attach a hawser to some trees 
on shore and all pull on it. In this way, by 
means of our arms, together with the help of 
the wind, which was favourable to us, we suc- 
ceeded in passing it. The savages who were with 
us carried their canoes by land, being unable 
to row them. After going over this fall, we saw 
some fine meadows. I was greatly surprised by 
this fall, since as we descended with the tide we 
found it in our favour, but contrary to us when 
we came to the fall. But, after we had passed 
it, it descended as before, which gave us great 
satisfaction. Pursuing our route, we came to 


Kennebec River 


the lake, which is from three to four leagues 
in length, where there are some islands, and 
two rivers enter it, the Quinibequy coming 
from the north-north-east, and the other from 
the north-west, whence Marchin and Sasinou 
were to come. Having awaited them all this 
day, and seeing that they did not come, we 
resolved to improve our time. We weighed 
anchor accordingly, and there accompanied us 
two savages from this lake to serve as guides. 
The same day we anchored at the mouth of 
the river, where we caught a large number of 
excellent fish of various sorts. Meanwhile, our 
savages went hunting, but did not return. The 
route by which we descended this river is much 
safer and better than that by which we went up. 
Tortoise Island before the mouth of this river 
is in latitude 44 ; and 1 9 12' of the deflection 
of the magnetic needle. They go by this river 
across the country to Quebec some fifty leagues, 
making only one portage of two leagues. After 
the portage, you enter another little stream 
which flows into the great river St. Lawrence. 
This river Quinibequy is very dangerous for ves- 
sels half a league from its mouth, on account of 
the small amount of water, great tides, rocks 
and shoals that are there outside as well as 
within. But it has a good channel, if it were 
well marked out. The little of the country 
which I have seen, along the shores of the river, 



Kennebec and 



Real latitude 
43 42' 25" 



Samuel de Champlain 

Casco Bay 


is very poor, for there are only rocks on all sides. 
There are a great many small oaks, and very 
little arable land. This place abounds in fish, 
as do the other rivers which I have mentioned. 
The people live like those in the neighbour- 
hood of our settlement ; and they told us that 
the savages who plant the Indian corn dwelt 
very far in the interior, and that they had given 
up planting it on the coasts on account of the 
war they had with others, who came and took 
it away. This is what I have been able to learn 
about this region, which I think is no better 
than the others. 

On the 8th of the month, we set out from 
the mouth of this river, which we could not 
do sooner on account of the fogs. We made 
that day some four leagues, and passed a bay, 
where there are a great many islands. From 
here large mountains are seen to the west, in 
which is the dwelling-place of a savage cap- 
tain called Aneda, who encamps near the river 
Quinibequy. I was satisfied from this name 
that it was one of his tribe that had discovered 
the plant called Aneda, which Jacques Cartier 
said was so powerful against the malady called 
scurvy, of which we have already spoken, which 
harassed his company as well as our own, when 
they wintered in Canada. The savages have 
no knowledge whatever of this plant, and are 
not aware of its existence, although the above- 

Coast of Maine 


mentioned savage has the same name. The 
following day we made eight leagues. As we 
passed along the coast, we perceived two col- 
umns of smoke which some savages made to 
attract our attention. We went in the direction 
of them and anchored behind a small island 
near the main land, where we saw more than 
eighty savages running along the shore to see 
us, dancing and giving expression to their joy. 
Sieur de Monts sent two men together with our 
savage to visit them. After they had spoken 
some time with them, and assured them of 
our friendship, we left with them one of our 
number, and they delivered to us one of their 
companions as a hostage. Meanwhile, Sieur 
de Monts visited an island, which is very beau- 
tiful in view of what it produces ; for it has 
fine oaks and nut-trees, the soil cleared up, and 
many vineyards bearing beautiful grapes in their 
season, which were the first we had seen on all 
these coasts from the Cap de la Heve. We 
named it Isle de Bacchus. It being full tide, 
we weighed anchor and entered a little river, 
which we could not sooner do ; for there is a 
bar, there being at low tide only half a fathom 
of water, at full tide a fathom and a half, and 
at the highest water two fathoms. On the other 
side of the bar there are three, four, five, and 
six fathoms. When we had anchored, a large 
number of savages came to us on the bank of 






Samuel de Champlain 

the river, and began to dance. Their captain, 
whom they called Honemechin, was not with 
them at the time. He arrived about two or 
three hours later with two canoes, when he 
came sweeping entirely round our barque. Our 
savage could understand only a few words, as 
the language of the Almouchiquois (as this 
nation is called) differs entirely from that of 
the Souriquois and Etechemins. These people 
gave signs of being greatly pleased. Their 
chief had a good figure, was young and agile. 
We sent some articles of merchandise on shore 
to barter with them ; but they had nothing 
but their robes to give in exchange, for they 
preserve only such furs as they need for their 
garments. Sieur de Monts ordered some pro- 
visions to be given to their chief, with which he 
was greatly pleased, and came several times to 
the side of our boat to see us. These savages 
shave off the hair far up on the head, and wear 
what remains very long, which they comb and 
twist behind in various ways very neatly, inter- 
twined with feathers which they attach to the 
head. They paint their faces black and red, like 
the other savages which we have seen. They 
are an agile people, with well-formed bodies. 
Their weapons are pikes, clubs, bows and ar- 
rows, at the end of which some attach the tail 
of a fish called the signoc, others bones, while 
the arrows of others are entirely of wood. They 


Coast of Maine 


till and cultivate the soil, something which we 
have not hitherto observed. In the place of 
ploughs, they use an instrument of very hard 
wood, shaped like a spade. This river is called 
by the inhabitants of the country Choiiacoet. 

The next day Sieur de Monts and I landed 
to observe their tillage on the bank of the river. 
We saw their Indian corn, which they raise in 
gardens. Planting three or four kernels in one 
place, they then heap up about it a quantity of 
earth with shells of the signoc before men- 
tioned. Then three feet distant they plant as 
much more, and thus in succession. With this 
corn they put in each hill three or four Brazil- 
ian beans, which are of different colours. When 
they grow up, they interlace with the corn, 
which reaches to the height of from five to six 
feet. They keep the ground very free from 
weeds. We saw there many squashes, and pump- 
kins, and tobacco, which they likewise cultivate. 

The Indian corn which we saw was at that 
time about two feet high, some of it as high 
as three. The beans were beginning to flower, 
as also the pumpkins and squashes. They plant 
their corn in May, and gather it in September. 

We saw also a great many white nuts, which 
are small and have several divisions. There 
were as yet none on the trees, but we found 
plenty under them, from the preceding year. 
We saw also many grape-vines, on which there 


7 6 

Samuel de Champlain 



was a remarkably fine berry, from which we 
made some very good verjuice. We had here- 
tofore seen grapes only on the Island of Bacchus, 
distant nearly two leagues from this river. Their 
permanent abode, the tillage, and the fine trees 
led us to conclude that the air here is milder 
and better than that where we passed the win- 
ter, and at the other places we visited on the 
coast. But I cannot believe that there is not 
here a considerable degree of cold, although 
it is in latitude 43 45'. The forests in the 
interior are very thin, although abounding in 
oaks, beeches, ashes, and elms; in wet places 
there are many willows. The savages dwell per- 
manently in this place, and have a large cabin 
surrounded by palisades made of rather large 
trees placed by the side of each other, in which 
they take refuge when their enemies make war 
upon them. They cover their cabins with oak 
bark. This place is very pleasant, and as agree- 
able as any to be seen. The river is very abun- 
dant in fish, and is bordered by meadows. At 
the mouth there is a small island adapted for 
the construction of a good fortress, where one 
could be in security. 

On Sunday, the 1 2th of the month, we set 
out from the river Choiiacoet. After coasting 
along some six or seven leagues, a contrary 
wind arose, which obliged us to anchor and 
go ashore, where we saw two meadows, each a 


Cape Porpoise 


league in length and half a league in breadth. 
We saw there two savages, whom at first we 
took to be the great birds called bustards, to 
be found in this country ; who, as soon as they 
caught sight of us, took flight into the woods, 
and were not seen again. From Choiiacoet to 
this place, where we saw some little birds, which 
sing like blackbirds, and are black excepting 
the ends of the wings, which are orange-col- 
oured, there is a large number of grape-vines 
and nut-trees. This coast is sandy, for the most 
part, all the way from Quinibequy. This day 
we returned two or three leagues towards Cho- 
iiacoet, as far as a cape which we called Island 
Harbour, favourable for vessels of a hundred 
tons, about which are three islands. Heading 
north-east a quarter north, one can enter an- 
other harbour near this place, to which there is 
no approach, although there are islands, except 
the one where you enter. At the entrance there 
are some dangerous reefs. There are in these 
islands so many red currants that one sees for 
the most part nothing else, and an infinite num- 
ber of pigeons, of which we took a great quan- 
tity. This Island Harbour is in latitude 43 25'. 
On the 1 5th of the month we made twelve 
leagues. Coasting along, we perceived a smoke 
on the shore, which we approached as near as 
possible, but saw no savage, which led us to 
believe that they had fled. The sun set, and we 



7 8 

Samuel de Champlain 


Isles of 

could find no harbour for that night, since the 
coast was flat and sandy. Keeping off, and head- 
ing south, in order to find an anchorage, after 
proceeding about two leagues, we observed a 
cape on the main land south a quarter south-east 
of us, some six leagues distant. Two leagues to 
the east we saw three or four rather high islands, 
and on the west a large bay. The shore of this 
bay, reaching as far as the cape, extends inland 
from where we were perhaps four leagues. It 
has a breadth of two leagues from north to 
south, and three at its entrance. Not observing 
any place favourable for putting in, we resolved 
to go to the cape above mentioned with short 
sail, which occupied a portion of the night. 
Approaching to where there were sixteen fath- 
oms of water, we anchored until daybreak. 

On the next day we went to the above-men- 
tioned cape, where there are three islands near 
the main land, full of wood of different kinds, 
as at Choiiacoet and all along the coast ; and 
still another flat one, where there are breakers, 
and which extends a little farther out to sea 
than the others, on which there is no wood at 
all. We named this place Island Cape, near 
which we saw a canoe containing five or six 
savages, who came out near our barque, and 
then went back and danced on the beach. Sieur 
de Monts sent me on shore to observe them, 
and to give each one of them a knife and some 


Cape Ann 


biscuit, which caused them to dance again bet- 
ter than before. This over, I made them un- 
derstand, as well as I could, that I desired them 
to show me the course of the shore. After I had 
drawn with a crayon the bay, and the Island 
Cape, where we were, with the same crayon 
they drew the outline of another bay, which 
they represented as very large ; here they placed 
six pebbles at equal distances apart, giving me 
to understand by this that these signs repre- 
sented as many chiefs and tribes. Then they 
drew within the first mentioned bay a river 
which we had passed, which has shoals and is 
very long. We found in this place a great many 
vines, the green grapes on which were a little 
larger than peas, also many nut-trees, the nuts 
on which were no larger than musket-balls. 
The savages told us that all those inhabiting 
this country cultivated the land and sowed seeds 
like the others, whom we had before seen. The 
latitude of this place is 43 and some minutes. 
Sailing half a league farther, we observed sev- 
eral savages on a rocky point, who ran along 
the shore to their companions, dancing as they 
went, to inform them of our coming. After 
pointing out to us the direction of their abode, 
they made a signal with smoke to show us the 
place of their settlement. We anchored near a 
little island, and sent our canoe with knives and 
cakes for the savages. From the large number 



Thatcher s 


Samuel de Champlain 


of those we saw, we concluded that these places 
were better inhabited than the others we had 

After a stay of some two hours for the sake of 
observing these people, whose canoes are made 
of birch bark, like those of the Canadians, Sou- 
riquois, and Etechemins, we weighed anchor 
and set sail with a promise of fine weather. 
Continuing our course to the west-south-west, 
we saw numerous islands on one side and the 
other. Having sailed seven or eight leagues, we 
anchored near an island, whence we observed 
many smokes along the shore, and many savages 
running up to see us. Sieur de Monts sent two 
or three men in a canoe to them, to whom he 
gave some knives and paternosters to present to 
them ; with which they were greatly pleased, 
and danced several times in acknowledgment. 
We could not ascertain the name of their chief, 
as we did not know their language. All along 
the shore there is a great deal of land cleared 
up and planted with Indian corn. The coun- 
try is very pleasant and agreeable, and there is 
no lack of fine trees. The canoes of those who 
live there are made of a single piece, and are 
very liable to turn over if one is not skilful in 
managing them. We had not before seen any 
of this kind. They are made in the following 
manner. After cutting down, at a cost of much 
labour and time, the largest and tallest tree they 


Boston Harbour 


can find, by means of stone hatchets (for they 
have no others except some few which they 
received from the savages on the coasts of La 
Cadie, who obtained them in exchange for furs), 
they remove the bark, and round off the tree 
except on one side, where they apply fire grad- 
ually along its entire length; and sometimes 
they put red-hot pebble-stones on top. When 
the fire is too fierce, they extinguish it with a 
little water, not entirely, but so that the edge 
of the boat may not be burnt. It being hol- 
lowed out as much as they wish, they scrape 
it all over with stones, which they use instead 
of knives. These stones resemble our musket 

On the next day, the 17th of the month, we 
weighed anchor to go to a cape we had seen the 
day before, which seemed to lie on our south- 
south-west. This day we were able to make 
only five leagues, and we passed by some islands 
covered with wood. I observed in the bay all 
that the savages had described to me at Island 
Cape. As we continued our course, large num- 
bers came to us in canoes from the islands and 
main land. We anchored a league from a cape, 
which we named St. Louis, where we noticed 
smoke in several places. While in the act of 
going there, our barque grounded on a rock, 
where we were in great danger, for, if we had 
not speedily got it off, it would have over- 

Brant Rock 


Samuel de Champlain 


turned in the sea, since the tide was falling all 
around, and there were five or six fathoms of 
water. But God preserved us, and we anchored 
near the above-named cape, when there came 
to us fifteen or sixteen canoes of savages. In 
some of them there were fifteen or sixteen, who 
began to manifest great signs of joy, and made 
various harangues, which we could not in the 
least understand. Sieur de Monts sent three or 
four men on shore in our canoe, not only to 
get water, but to see their chief, whose name 
was Honabetha. The latter had a number of 
knives and other trifles, which Sieur de Monts 
gave him, when he came alongside to see us, 
together with some of his companions, who 
were present both along the shore and in their 
canoes. We received the chief very cordially, 
and made him welcome ; who, after remaining 
some time, went back. Those whom we had 
sent to them brought us some little squashes 
as big as the fist, which we ate as a salad, like 
cucumbers, and which we found very good. 
They brought also some purslane, which grows 
in large quantities among the Indian corn, and 
of which they make no more account than of 
weeds. We saw here a great many little houses, 
scattered over the fields where they plant their 
Indian corn. 

There is, moreover, in this bay a very broad 
river, which we named River du Guast. It 


Plymouth Harbour 


stretches, as it seemed to me, towards the Iro- 
quois, a nation in open warfare with the Mon- 
tagnais, who live on the great river St. Law- 

Continuation of the Discoveries along 
the Coast of the Almouchiquois, and 
what we observed in detail. 

THE next day we doubled Cap St. 
Louis, so named by Sieur de Monts, 
a land rather low, and in latitude 
42 45'. The same day we sailed two leagues 
along a sandy coast, as we passed along which 
we saw a great many cabins and gardens. The 
wind being contrary, we entered a little bay to 
await a time favourable for proceeding. There 
came to us two or three canoes, which had just 
been fishing for cod and other fish, which are 
found there in large numbers. These they catch 
with hooks made of a piece of wood, to which 
they attach a bone in the shape of a spear, and 
fasten it very securely. The whole has a fang- 
shape, and the line attached to it is made out 
of the bark of a tree. They gave me one of 
their hooks, which I took as a curiosity. In it 
the bone was fastened on by hemp, like that in 
France, as it seemed to me, and they told me 



8 4 

Samuel de Champlain 

that they gathered this plant without being 
obliged to cultivate it ; and indicated that it 
grew to the height of four or five feet. This 
canoe went back on shore to give notice to 
their fellow inhabitants, who caused columns 
of smoke to arise on our account. We saw 
eighteen or twenty savages, who came to the 
shore and began to dance. Our canoe landed 
in order to give them some bagatelles, at which 
they were greatly pleased. Some of them came 
to us and begged us to go to their river. We 
weighed anchor to do so, but were unable to 
enter on account of the small amount of water, 
it being low tide, and were accordingly obliged 
to anchor at the mouth. I went ashore, where 
I saw many others, who received us very cor- 
dially. I made also an examination of the river, 
but saw only an arm of water extending a short 
distance inland, where the land is only in part 
cleared up. Running into this is merely a brook 
not deep enough for boats except at full tide. 
The circuit of the bay is about a league. On 
one side of the entrance to this bay there is a 
point which is almost an island, covered with 
wood, principally pines, with sand-banks, which 
are very extensive, all about. On the other side, 
the land is high. There are two islets in this 
bay, which are not seen until one has entered, 
and around which it is almost entirely dry at 
low tide. This place is very conspicuous from 


Cape Cod 

the sea, for the coast is very low, excepting the 
cape at the entrance to the bay. We named it 
the Port du Cap St. Louis, distant two leagues 
from the above cape, and ten from the Island 
Cape. It is in about the same latitude as Cap 
St. Louis. 

On the 1 9th of the month, we set out from 
this place. Coasting along in a southerly direc- 
tion, we sailed four or five leagues, and passed 
near a rock on a level with the surface of the 
water. As we continued our course, we saw 
some land which seemed to us to be islands, 
but as we came nearer we found it to be the 
main land, lying to the north-north-west of us, 
and that it was the cape of a large bay, contain- 
ing more than eighteen or nineteen leagues in 
circuit, into which we had run so far that we 
had to wear off on the other tack in order to 
double the cape which we had seen. The latter 
we named Cap Blanc, since it consisted of sands 
and downs which had a white appearance. A 
favourable wind was of great assistance to us 
here, for otherwise we should have been in dan- 
ger of being driven upon the coast. This bay is 
very safe, provided the land be not approached 
nearer than a good league, there being no islands 
nor rocks except that just mentioned, which is 
near a river that extends some distance inland, 
which we named St. Suzanne du Cap Blanc, 
whence across to Cap St. Louis the distance is 



Cape Cod 



Samuel de Champlain 


ten leagues. Cap Blanc is a point of sand, which 
bends around towards the south some six leagues. 
This coast is rather high, and consists of sand, 
which is very conspicuous as one comes from 
the sea. At a distance of some fifteen or eigh- 
teen leagues from land, the depth of the water 
is thirty, forty, and fifty fathoms, but only ten 
on nearing the shore, which is unobstructed. 
There is a large extent of open country along 
the shore before reaching the woods, which are 
very attractive and beautiful. We anchored off 
the coast, and saw some savages, towards whom 
four of our company proceeded. Making their 
way upon a sand-bank, they observed something 
like a bay, and cabins bordering it on all sides. 
When they were about a league and a half from 
us, there came to them a savage dancing all over, 
as they expressed it. He had come down from 
the high shore, but turned about shortly after 
to inform his fellow inhabitants of our arrival. 
The next day, the 20th of the month, we 
went to the place which our men had seen, 
and which we found a very dangerous harbour 
in consequence of the shoals and banks, where 
we saw breakers in all directions. It was almost 
low tide when we entered, and there were only 
four feet of water in the northern passage ; at 
high tide, there are two fathoms. After we had 
entered, we found the place very spacious, being 
perhaps three or four leagues in circuit, entirely 


Cape Cod 

surrounded by little houses, around each one 
of which there was as much land as the occu- 
pant needed for his support. A small river en- 
ters here, which is very pretty, and in which at 
low tide there are some three and a half feet 
of water. There are also two or three brooks 
bordered by meadows. It would be a very fine 
place, if the harbour were good. I took the 
altitude, and found the latitude 4 2°, and the de- 
flection of the magnetic needle 1 8° 40'. Many 
savages, men and women, visited us, and ran 
up on all sides dancing. We named this place 
Port de Mallebarre. 

The next day, the 21st of the month, Sieur 
de Monts determined to go and see their hab- 
itations. Nine or ten of us accompanied him 
with our arms ; the rest remained to guard the 
barque. We went about a league along the 
coast. Before reaching their cabins, we entered 
a field planted with Indian corn in the man- 
ner before described. The corn was in flower, 
and five and a half feet high. There was some 
less advanced, which they plant later. We saw 
many Brazilian beans, and many squashes of va- 
rious sizes, very good for eating ; some tobacco, 
and roots which they cultivate, the latter having 
the taste of an artichoke. The woods are filled 
with oaks, nut-trees, and beautiful cypresses, 
which are of a reddish colour and have a very 
pleasant odour. There were also several fields 




Samuel de Champlain 

entirely uncultivated, the land being allowed 
to remain fallow. When they wish to plant it, 
they set fire to the weeds, and then work it over 
with their wooden spades. Their cabins are 
round, and covered with heavy thatch made of 
reeds. In the roof there is an opening of about 
a foot and a half, whence the smoke from the 
fire passes out. We asked them if they had their 
permanent abode in this place, and whether 
there was much snow. But we were unable to 
ascertain this fully from them, not understand- 
ing their language, although they made an at- 
tempt to inform us by signs, by taking some 
sand in their hands, spreading it out over the 
ground, and indicating that it was of the colour 
of our collars, and that it reached the depth of 
a foot. Others made signs that there was less, 
and gave us to understand also that the harbour 
never froze ; but we were unable to ascertain 
whether the snow lasted long. I conclude, 
however, that this region is of moderate tem- 
perature, and the winter not severe. While we 
were there, there was a north-east storm, which 
lasted four days ; the sky being so overcast that 
the sun hardly shone at all. It was very cold, 
and we were obliged to put on our great-coats, 
which we had entirely left off. Yet I think the 
cold was accidental, as it is often experienced 
elsewhere out of season. 

On the 23d of July, four or five seamen 


Cape Cod 

having gone on shore with some kettles to get 
fresh water, which was to be found in one of 
the sand-banks a short distance from our barque, 
some of the savages, coveting them, watched 
the time when our men went to the spring, and 
then seized one out of the hands of a sailor, who 
was the first to dip, and who had no weapons. 
One of his companions, starting to run after 
him, soon returned, as he could not catch him, 
since he ran much faster than himself. The 
other savages, of whom there were a large num- 
ber, seeing our sailors running to our barque, and 
at the same time shouting to us to fire at them, 
took to flight. At the time there were some 
of them in our barque, who threw themselves 
into the sea, only one of whom we were able 
to seize. Those on the land who had taken to 
flight, seeing them swimming, returned straight 
to the sailor from whom they had taken away 
the kettle, hurled several arrows at him from 
behind, and brought him down. Seeing this, 
they ran at once to him, and despatched him 
with their knives. Meanwhile, haste was made 
to go on shore, and muskets were fired from 
our barque : mine, bursting in my hands, came 
near killing me. The savages, hearing this dis- 
charge of fire-arms, took to flight, and with 
redoubled speed when they saw that we had 
landed, for they were afraid when they saw us 
running after them. There was no likelihood 




Samuel de Champlain 

of our catching them, for they are as swift as 
horses. We brought in the murdered man, and 
he was buried some hours later. Meanwhile, 
we kept the prisoner bound by the feet and 
hands on board of our barque, fearing that he 
might escape. But Sieur de Monts resolved to 
let him go, being persuaded that he was not to 
blame, and that he had no previous knowledge 
of what had transpired, as also those who, at the 
time, were in and about our barque. Some hours 
later there came some savages to us, to excuse 
themselves, indicating by signs and demonstra- 
tions that it was not they who had committed 
this malicious act, but others farther off in the 
interior. We did not wish to harm them, al- 
though it was in our power to avenge ourselves. 
All these savages from the Island Cape wear 
neither robes nor furs, except very rarely : more- 
over, their robes are made of grasses and hemp, 
scarcely covering the body, and coming down 
only to their thighs. They have only the private 
parts concealed with a small piece of leather; so 
likewise the women, with whom it comes down 
a little lower behind than with the men, all the 
rest of the body being naked. Whenever the 
women came to see us, they wore robes which 
were open in front. The men cut off the hair 
on the top of the head like those at the river 
Choiiacoet. I saw, among other things, a girl 
with her hair very neatly dressed, with a skin 


Cape Cod 

coloured red, and bordered on the upper part 
with little shell-beads. A part of her hair hung 
down behind, the rest being braided in various 
ways. These people paint the face red, black, 
and yellow. They have scarcely any beard, and 
tear it out as fast as it grows. Their bodies 
are well-proportioned. I cannot tell what gov- 
ernment they have, but I think that in this 
respect they resemble their neighbours, who 
have none at all. They know not how to wor- 
ship or pray ; yet, like the other savages, they 
have some superstitions, which I shall describe 
in their place. As for weapons, they have only 
pikes, clubs, bows and arrows. It would seem 
from their appearance that they have a good 
disposition, better than those of the north, but 
they are all in fact of no great worth. Even a 
slight intercourse with them gives you at once 
a knowledge of them. They are great thieves 
and, if they cannot lay hold of any thing with 
their hands, they try to do so with their feet, 
as we have oftentimes learned by experience. 
I am of opinion that, if they had any thing to 
exchange with us, they would not give them- 
selves to thieving. They bartered away to us 
their bows, arrows and quivers, for pins and 
buttons ; and if they had had any thing else 
better they would have done the same with it. 
It is necessary to be on one's guard against this 
people, and live in a state of distrust of them, 




Samuel de Champlain 


yet without letting them perceive it. They gave 
us a large quantity of tobacco, which they dry 
and then reduce to powder. When they eat 
Indian corn, they boil it in earthen pots, which 
they make in a way different from ours. They 
pound it also in wooden mortars and reduce it 
to flour, of which they then make cakes, like 
the Indians of Peru. 

In this place and along the whole coast from 
Quinibequy, there are a great many siguenocs, 
which is a fish with a shell on its back like 
the tortoise, yet different, there being in the 
middle a row of little prickles, of the colour of 
a dead leaf, like the rest of the fish. At the 
end of this shell, there is another still smaller, 
bordered by very sharp points. The length of 
the tail varies according to their size. With 
the end of it, these people point their arrows, 
and it contains also a row of prickles like the 
large shell in which are the eyes. There are 
eight small feet like those of the crab, and two 
behind longer and flatter, which they use in 
swimming. There are also in front two other 
very small ones with which they eat. When 
walking, all the feet are concealed excepting 
the two hindermost, which are slightly visible. 
Under the small shell there are membranes 
which swell up, and beat like the throat of a 
frog, and rest upon each other like the folds of 
a waistcoat. The largest specimen of this fish 


Cape Cod 

that I saw was a foot broad, and a foot and a 
half long. 

We saw also a sea-bird with a black beak, 
the upper part slightly aquiline, four inches long 
and in the form of a lancet ; namely, the lower 
part representing the handle and the upper the 
blade, which is thin, sharp on both sides, and 
shorter by a third than the other, which cir- 
cumstance is a matter of astonishment to many 
persons, who cannot comprehend how it is pos- 
sible for this bird to eat with such a beak. It 
is of the size of a pigeon, the wings being very 
long in proportion to the body, the tail short, 
as also the legs, which are red; the feet being 
small and flat. The plumage on the upper part is 
gray-brown, and on the under part pure white. 
They go always in flocks along the sea-shore, 
like the pigeons with us. 

The savages, along all these coasts where 
we have been, say that other birds, which are 
very large, come along when their corn is ripe. 
They imitated for us their cry, which resembles 
that of the turkey. They showed us their feath- 
ers in several places, with which they feather 
their arrows, and which they put on their heads 
for decoration ; and also a kind of hair which 
they have under the throat like those we have 
in France, and they say that a red crest falls over 
upon the beak. According to their description, 
they are as large as a bustard, which is a kind 




Samuel de Champlain 

of goose, having the neck longer and twice as 
large as those with us. All these indications 
led us to conclude that they were turkeys. We 
should have been very glad to see some of these 
birds, as well as their feathers, for the sake of 
greater certainty. Before seeing their feathers, 
and the little bunch of hair which they have 
under the throat, and hearing their cry imi- 
tated, I should have thought that they were 
certain birds like turkeys, which are found in 
some places in Peru, along the sea-shore, eat- 
ing carrion and other dead things like crows. 
But these are not so large ; nor do they have so 
long a wattle, or a cry like that of real turkeys ; 
nor are they good to eat like those which the 
Indians say come in flocks in summer, and at 
the beginning of winter go away to warmer 
countries, their natural dwelling-place. 

Return from the Discoveries along the 
Coast of the Almouchiquois. 

WE had spent more than five weeks in 
going over three degrees of latitude, 
and our voyage was limited to six, 
since we had not taken provisions for a longer 
time. In consequence of fogs and storms, we 
had not been able to go farther than Mallebarre, 


Massachusetts Bay 


where we waited several days for fair weather, 
in order to sail. Finding ourselves accordingly- 
pressed by the scantiness of provisions, Sieur de 
Monts determined to return to the Island of 
St. Croix, in order to find another place more 
favourable for our settlement, as we had not 
been able to do on any of the coasts which we 
had explored on this voyage. 

Accordingly, on the 25th of July, we set 
out from this harbour, in order to make obser- 
vations elsewhere. In going out, we came near 
being lost on the bar at the entrance, from the 
mistake of our pilots, Cramolet and Champ- 
dore, masters of the barque, who had imper- 
fectly marked out the entrance of the channel 
on the southern side, where we were to go. 
Having escaped this danger, we headed north- 
east for six leagues, until we reached Cap Blanc, 
sailing on from there to Island Cape, a distance 
of fifteen leagues, with the same wind. Then 
we headed east-north-east sixteen leagues, as far 
as Choiiacoet, where we saw the savage chief, 
Marchin, whom we had expected to see at the 
Lake Quinibequy. He had the reputation of 
being one of the valiant ones of his people. He 
had a fine appearance: all his motions were 
dignified, savage as he was. Sieur de Monts 
gave him many presents, with which he was 
greatly pleased ; and, in return, Marchin gave 
him a young Etechemin boy, whom he had 


9 6 

Samuel de Champlain 

in the 




captured in war, and whom we took away with 
us ; and thus we set out, mutually good friends. 
We headed north-east a quarter east for fifteen 
leagues, as far as Quinibequy, where we ar- 
rived on the 29th of the month, and where we 
were expecting to find a savage, named Sasinou, 
of whom I spoke before. Thinking that he 
would come, we waited some time for him, 
in order to recover from him an Etechemin 
young man and girl, whom he was holding as 
prisoners. While waiting, there came to us a 
captain called Anassou, who trafficked a little in 
furs, and with whom we made an alliance. He 
told us that there was a ship, ten leagues off 
the harbour, which was engaged in fishing, and 
that those on her had killed five savages of this 
river, under cover of friendship. From his de- 
scription of the men on the vessel, we concluded 
that they were English, and we named the Isl- 
and where they were La Nef ; for, at a distance, 
it had the appearance of a ship. Finding that 
the above-mentioned Sasinou did not come, we 
headed east-south-east, for twenty leagues, to 
Isle Haute, where we anchored until morning. 
On the next day, the 1st of August, we sailed 
east some twenty leagues to Cap Corneille, 
where we spent the night. On the 2d of the 
month, we sailed north-east seven leagues to 
the mouth of the river St. Croix, on the western 
shore. Having anchored between the two first 


St. "John River 


islands, Sieur de Monts embarked in a canoe, 
at a distance of six leagues from the settlement 
of St. Croix, where we arrived the next day 
with our barque. We found there Sieur des 
Antons of St. Malo, who had come in one of 
the vessels of Sieur de Monts, to bring provisions 
and also other supplies for those who were to 
winter in this country. 

and Eastport 

George ^apmouti) 



George Waymouth was sent to the Maine coast in 
1 605 to select a location for a settlement. His employ- 
ers, the Earl of Southampton and 'Thomas Arundell, 
had some definite purpose in mind, but their plans were 
never fulfilled, and nothing is now known regarding their 
intentions. Hon. James Phinney Baxter, in his life of 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges, published at Portland in 1890, 
suggested that Arundell, who was a papal count, may 
have had some scheme for establishing a colony in which 
Roman Catholic Englishmen might find a refuge in case 
of a renewal of persecution in England. A document in 
the Roman archives shows that a Catholic priest accom- 
panied Waymouth 's ship. He may have been the James 
Rosier who wrote an account of the voyage, which was 
printed at London shortly after the return. 

Second English Book relating to New England 


of Captaine George Way- 
mouth his Voyage, made 
this present yeere 1605; in 
the Discouerie of the North 
part of Virginia. 

VPON Tuesday the 5 day of March, 
about ten a clocke afore noone, we 
set saile from Ratcliffe, and came to 
an anker that tide about two a clocke before 

From thence the 10 of March being Sunday 
at night we ankered in the Downes : and there 
rode til the next day about three a clocke after 
noone, when with a scant winde we set saile ; and 
by reason the winde continued Southwardly, 
we were beaten vp and doune : but on Satur- 
day the 1 6 day about foure a clocke after noon 
we put into Dartmouth Hauen, where the con- 
tinuance of the winde at South & Southwest 
constrained vs to ride till the last of this moneth. 
There we shipped some of our men and sup- 
plied necessaries for our Ship and Voyage. 






George Waymouth 


Upon Easter day, being the last of March, the 
winde comming at North-North-East, about 
fiue a clocke after noone we wayed anker, and 
put to sea. In the name of God, being well 
victualled and furnished with munition and all 
necessaries : Our whole Company being but 29 
persons; of whom I may boldly say, few voyages 
have beene manned forth with better Sea-men 
generally in respect of our small number. 

Mundaythe next day, being the first of Aprill, 
by sixe a clocke in the morning we were sixe 
leagues South-South-East from the Lizarde. 

At two a clocke in the afternoone this day, 
the weather being very faire, our Captaine for 
his owne experience and others with him sound- 
ed, and had sixe and fiftie fathoms and a halfe. 
The sounding was some small blacke perrie 
sand, some reddish sand, a match or two, with 
small shels called Saint James his Shels. 

The foureteenth of Aprill being Sunday, be- 
tweene nine and ten of the clocke in the morn- 
ing our Captaine descried the Hand Cueruo : 
which bare South- West and by West, about 
seuen leagues from vs : by eleuen of the clocke 
we descried Flores to the Southward of Cueruo, 
as it lieth : by foure a clocke in the afternoone 
we brought Cueruo due South from vs within 
two leagues of the shore, but we touched not, 
because the winde was faire, and we thought 
our selues sufficiently watered and wooded. 


The Azores 


Heere our Captaine obserued the Sunne, and 
found himselfe in the latitude of 40 degrees 
and 7 minutes : so he judged the North part 
of Cueruo to be in 40 degrees. After we had 
kept our course about a hundred leagues from 
the Hands, by continuall Southerly windes we 
were forced and driuen from the Southward, 
whither we first intended. And when our Cap- 
taine by long beating saw it was but in vaine to 
striue with windes, not knowing Gods purposes 
heerein to our further blessing, (which after by 
his especiall direction wee found) he thought 
best to stand as nigh as he could by the winde 
to recouer what land we might first discouer. 

Munday, the 6 of May, being in the lati- 
tude of 39 and a halfe about ten a clocke afore 
noone, we came to a riplin, which we discerned 
a head our ship, which is a breach of water 
caused either by a fall, or by some meeting of 
currents, which we judged this to be ; for the 
weather being very faire, and a small gale of 
winde, we sounded and found no ground in a 
hundred fathoms. 

Munday, the 1 3 of May, about eleuen a 
clocke afore noone, our Captaine, judging we 
were not farre from land, sounded, and had a 
soft oaze in a hundred and sixty fathomes. At 
fowre a clocke after noone we sounded againe, 
and had the same oaze in a hundred fathoms. 

From ten a clocke that night till three a 




George Waymouth 


clocke in the morning, our Captaine tooke in 
all sailes and lay at hull, being desirous to fall 
with the land in the day time, because it was an 
unknowen coast, which it pleased God in his 
mercy to grant vs, otherwise we had run our 
ship vpon the hidden rockes and perished all. 
For when we set saile we sounded in i oo fath- 
oms : and by eight a clock, hauing not made 
aboue fiue or six leagues, our Captaine vpon a 
sudden change of water (supposing verily he saw 
the sand) presently sounded, and had but fiue 
fathoms. Much maruelling because we saw 
no land, he sent one to the top, who thence de- 
scried a whitish sandy clifFe, which bare West- 
North- West about six leagues off from vs: but 
comming neerer within three or fowre leagues, 
we saw many breaches still neerer the land : at 
last we espied a great breach a head vs al along 
the shore, into which before we should enter, 
our Captaine thought best to hoise out his ship 
boate and sound it. Which if he had not done, 
we had beene in great danger : for he bare vp 
the ship, as neere as he durst after the boate : 
vntill Thomas Cam, his mate, being in the boat, 
called to him to tacke about & stand off, for 
in this breach he had very showld water, two 
fathoms and lesse vpon rockes, and sometime 
they supposed they saw the rocke within three 
or fowre foote, whereon the sea made a very 
strong breach: which we might discerne (from 


The Fishing Banks 

io 5 

the top) to run along as we sailed by it 6 or 
7 leagues to the Southward. This was in the 
latitude of 41 degrees, 20 minuts : wherefore 
we were constrained to put backe againe from 
the land : and sounding, (the weather being 
very faire and a small winde) we found our selues 
embaied with continuall showldes and rockes 
in a most uncertaine ground, from fiue or sixe 
fathoms, at the next cast of the lead we should 
haue 1 5 & 1 8 fathoms. Ouer many which we 
passed, and God so blessed vs, that we had wind 
and weather as faire as poore men in this dis- 
tresse could wish : whereby we both perfectly 
discerned euery breach, and with the winde 
were able to turne, where we saw most hope of 
safest passage. Thus we parted from the land, 
which we had not so much before desired, and 
at the first sight rejoiced, as now we all joifully 
praised God, that it had pleased him to deliuer 
vs from so imminent danger. 

Heere we found great store of excellent Cod 
fish, and saw many Whales, as we had done two 
or three daies before. 

We stood off all that night, and the next day 
being Wednesday; but the wind still continu- 
ing between the points of South-South- West, 
and West-South- West : so as we could not 
make any way to the Southward, in regard of 
our great want of water and wood (which was 
now spent) we much desired land and therefore 



George Waymouth 


sought for it, where the wind would best suffer 
vs to refresh our selues. 

Thursday, the 16 of May, we stood in di- 
rectly with the land, and much maruelled we 
descried it not, wherein we found our sea charts 
very false, putting land where none is. 

Friday, the 17 of May, about sixe a clocke at 
night we descried the land, which bare from vs 
North-North-East ; but because it blew a great 
gale of winde, the sea very high and neere night, 
not fit to come vpon an vnknowen coast, we 
stood off till two a clocke in the morning, be- 
ing Saturday : then standing in with it againe, 
we descried it by eight a clocke in the morn- 
ing, bearing North-East from vs. It appeared 
a meane high land, as we after found it, being 
but an Hand of some six miles in compasse, but 
I hope the most fortunate euer yet discouered. 
About twelve a clocke that day, we came to 
an anker on the North side of this Hand, about 
a league from the shore. About two a clocke 
our Captaine with twelue men rowed in his ship 
boat to the shore, where we made no long stay, 
but laded our boat with dry wood of olde trees 
vpon the shore side, and returned to our ship, 
where we rode that night. 

This Hand is woody, growen with Firre, 
Birch, Oke and Beech, as farre as we saw along 
the shore ; and so likely to be within. On the 
verge grow Gooseberries, Strawberries, Wild 




pease, and Wild rose bushes. The water issued 
foorth downe the Rocky clifFes in many places : 
and much fowle of diuers kinds breed vpon the 
shore and rocks. 

While we were at shore, our men aboord 
with a few hooks got aboue thirty great Cods 
and Hadocks, which gaue vs a taste of the 
great plenty of fish which we found afterward 
wheresoeuer we went vpon the coast. 

From hence we might discerne the maine 
land from the West-South- West to the East- 
North-East, and a great way (as it then seemed, 
and as we after found it) vp into the maine we 
might discerne very high mountaines, though 
the maine seemed but low land; which gaue 
vs a hope it would please God to direct vs to 
the discouerie of some good ; although wee 
were driuen by winds farre from that place, 
whither (both by our direction and desire) we 
euer intended to shape the course of our voy- 

The next day being Whit-Sunday ; because 
we rode too much open to the sea and windes, 
we weyed anker about twelue a clocke, and 
came along to the other Hands more adjoyning 
to the maine, and in the rode directly with the 
mountaines, about three leagues from the first 
Hand where we had ankered. 

When we came neere vnto them (sounding 
all along in a good depth) our Captaine manned 





George Waymouth 

St. George's 

his ship-boat and sent her before with Thomas 
Cam one of his Mates, whom he knew to be of 
good experience, to sound & search betweene 
the Hands for a place safe for our shippe to 
ride in ; in the meane while we kept aloofe at 
sea, hauing giuen them in the boat a token 
to wefFe in the ship, if he found a conuenient 
Harbour ; which it pleased God to send vs, farre 
beyond our expectation, in a most safe birth 
defended from all windes, in an excellent depth 
of water for ships of any burthen, in six, seuen, 
eight, nine and ten fathoms vpon a clay oaze 
very tough. 

We all with great joy praised God for his 
vnspeakable goodnesse, who had from so ap- 
parent danger deliuered vs, & directed vs vpon 
this day into so secure an Harbour : in remem- 
brance whereof we named it Pentecost har- 
bor, we arriuing there that day out of our last 
Harbor in England, from whence we set saile 
vpon Easterday. 

About foure a clocke, after we were ankered 
and well mored, our Captaine with halfe a 
dozen of our Company went on shore to seeke 
fresh watering, and a conuenient place to set to- 
gether a pinnesse, which we brought in pieces 
out of England ; both which we found very fit- 

Vpon this Hand, as also vpon the former, we 
found (at our first comming to shore) where 


St. Georges River 


fire had beene made : and about the place were 
very great egge shelles bigger than goose egges, 
fish bones, and as we judged, the bones of some 

Here we espied Cranes stalking on the shore 
of a little Hand adjoyning ; where we after saw 
they vsed to breed. 

Whitsun-munday, the 20 day of May, very 
early in the morning, our Captaine caused the 
pieces of the pinnesse to be carried a shore, 
where while some were busied about her, oth- 
ers digged welles to receiue the fresh water, 
which we found issuing downe out of the land 
in many places. Heere I cannot omit (for fool- 
ish feare of imputation of flattery) the painfull 
industry of our Captaine, who as at sea he is 
alwayes most carefull and vigilant, so at land 
he refuseth no paines ; but his labour was euer 
as much or rather more than any mans : which 
not only encourageth others with better con- 
tent, but also efFecteth much with great expe- 

In digging we found excellent clay for bricke 
or tile. 

The next day we finished a well of good and 
holesome cleere water in a great empty caske, 
which we left there. We cut yards, waste trees, 
and many necessaries for our ship, while our 
Carpenter and Cooper laboured to fit and fur- 
nish forth the shallop. 



George Waymouth 

This day our boat went out about a mile 
from our ship, and in small time with two 
or three hooks was fished sufficiently for our 
whole Company three dayes, with great Cod, 
Haddocke, and Thornebacke. 

And towards night we drew with a small 
net of twenty fathoms very nigh the shore : we 
got about thirty very good and great Lobsters, 
many Rockfish, some Plaise, and other small 
fishes, and fishes called Lumpes, verie pleasant 
to the taste : and we generally obserued, that all 
the fish, of what kinde soeuer we tooke, were 
well fed, fat, and sweet in taste. 

Wednesday, the 22 of May, we felled and 
cut wood for our ships vse, cleansed and scoured 
our wels, and digged a plot of ground, wherein, 
amongst some garden seeds, we sowed peaze 
and barley, which in sixteen dayes grew eight 
inches aboue ground ; and so continued grow- 
ing euery day halfe an inch, although this 
was but the crust of the ground, and much 
inferior to the mould we after found in the 

Friday, the 24 of May, after we had made an 
end of cutting wood, and carying water aboord 
our shippe, with fourteene Shot and Pikes we 
marched about and thorow part of two of the 
Hands ; the bigger of which we judged to be 
foure or fiue miles in compasse, and a mile 


St. Georges River 


All along the shore and 
some space within, where 
the wood hindereth not, 
grow plentifully 

Within the Hands growe 
wood of sundry sorts, some 
very great, and all tall : 

The profits and fruits which are naturally on 
these Hands are these : 

' Rasberries. 














Oke very great and 

Firre-tree, out of which 
issueth Turpentine in so maruellous plenty, and 
so sweet, as our Chirurgeon and others affirmed 
they neuer saw so good in England. We pulled 
off much Gumme congealed on the outside of 
the barke, which smelled like Frankincense. 
This would be a great benefit for making Tarre 
and Pitch. 

We stayed the longer in this place, not only 
because of our good Harbour (which is an ex- 
cellent comfort) but because euery day we did 
more and more discouer the pleasant fruitful- 
nesse ; insomuch as many of our Companie 
wished themselues setled heere, not expecting 


I 12 

George Waymouth 

any further hopes, or better discouery to be 

Heere our men found abundance of great 
muscels among the rocks ; and in some of them 
many small Pearls: and in one muscell (which 
we drew vp in our net) was found foureteene 
Pearles, whereof one of prety bignesse and ori- 
ent; in another aboue fiftie small Pearles; and 
if we had had a Drag, no doubt we had found 
some of great valew, seeing these did certainly 
shew, that heere they were bred : the shels all 
glistering with mother of Pearle. 

Wednesday, the 29 day, our shallop being 
now finished, and our Captaine and men fur- 
nished to depart with hir from the ship : we 
set vp a crosse on the shore side vpon the rockes. 

Thursday, the 30 of May, about ten a clock 
afore noon, our Captaine with 1 3 men more, 
in the name of God, and with all our praiers 
for their prosperous discouerie, and safe returne, 
departed in the shallop : leauing the ship in a 
good harbour, which before I mentioned, well 
mored, and manned with 14 men. 

This day, about fiue a clocke in the after- 
noone, we in the shippe espied three Canoas 
comming towards vs, which went to the iland 
adjoining, where they went a shore, and very 
quickly had made a fire, about which they stood 
beholding our ship : to whom we made signes 
with our hands and hats, weffing vnto them to 


St. George's River 


come vnto vs, because we had not seene any of 
the people yet. They sent one Canoa with three 
men, one of which, when they came neere vnto 
vs, spake in his language very lowd and very 
boldly : seeming as though he would know why 
we were there, and by pointing with his oare 
towards the sea, we conjectured he ment we 
should be gone. But when we shewed them 
kniues and their vse, by cutting of stickes and 
other trifles, as combs and glasses, they came 
close aboard our ship, as desirous to entertaine 
our friendship. To these we gaue such things 
as we perceiued they liked, when wee shewed 
them the vse : bracelets, rings, peacocke feath- 
ers, which they stucke in their haire, and Ta- 
bacco pipes. After their departure to their 
company on the shore, presently came foure 
other in another Canoa: to whom we gaue as 
to the former, vsing them with as much kind- 
nes as we could. 

The shape of their body is very proportiona- 
ble, they are wel countenanced, not very tal nor 
big, but in stature like to vs: they paint their 
bodies with blacke, their faces, some with red, 
some with blacke, and some with blew. 

Their clothing is Beauers skins, or Deares 
skins, cast ouer them like a mantle, and hanging 
downe to their knees, made fast together vpon 
the shoulder with leather ; some of them had 
sleeues, most had none ; some had buskins of 


1 14 

George Waymouth 

such leather tewed : they haue besides a peece 
of Beauers skin betweene their legs, made fast 
about their waste, to couer their priuities. 

They suffer no haire to grow on their faces, 
but on their head very long and very blacke, 
which those that haue wiues, binde vp behinde 
with a leather string, in a long round knot. 

They seemed all very ciuill and merrie : 
shewing tokens of much thankefulnesse, for 
those things we gaue them. We found them 
then (as after) a people of exceeding good inuen- 
tion, quicke vnderstanding and readie capacitie. 

Their Canoas are made without any iron, of 
the bark of a birch tree, strengthened within 
with ribs and hoops of wood, in so good fash- 
ion, with such excellent ingenious art, as they 
are able to beare seuen or eight persons, far 
exceeding any in the Indies. 

One of their Canoas came not to vs, where- 
in we imagined their women were : of whom 
they are (as all Saluages) very jealous. 

When I signed unto them they should goe 
sleepe, because it was night, they vnderstood 
presently, and pointed that at the shore, right 
against our ship, they would stay all night : as 
they did. 

The next morning very early, came one Ca- 
noa abord vs againe with three Saluages, whom 
we easily then enticed into our ship, and vnder 
the decke : where we gaue them porke, fish, 


St. George's River 


bread and pease, all which they did eat ; and 
this I noted, they would eat nothing raw, either 
fish or flesh. They maruelled much and much 
looked vpon the making of our canne and kettle, 
so they did at a head-peece and at our guns, of 
which they are most fearefull, and would fall 
flat downe at the report of them. At their de- 
parture I signed vnto them, that if they would 
bring me such skins as they ware I would giue 
them kniues, and such things as I saw they most 
liked, which the chiefe of them promised to do 
by that time the Sunne should be beyond the 
middest of the firmament ; this I did to bring 
them to an vnderstanding of exchange, and that 
they might conceiue the intent of our comming 
to them to be for no other end. 

About i o a clocke this day we descried our 
Shallop returning toward vs, which so soone 
as we espied, we certainly conjectured our Cap- 
taine had found some vnexpected harbour, fur- 
ther vp towards the maine to bring the ship into, 
or some riuer ; knowing his determination and 
resolution, not so suddenly else to make return : 
which when they came neerer they expressed 
by shooting volleies of shot ; and when they 
were come within Musket shot, they gaue vs a 
volley and haled vs, then we in the shippe gaue 
them a great peece and haled them. 

Thus we welcomed them ; who gladded vs 
exceedingly with their joifull relation of their 



George Waymouth 

St. George's 

happie discouerie, which shall appeare in the 
sequele. And we likewise gaue them cause of 
mutuall joy with vs, in discoursing of the kinde 
ciuility we found in a people, where we little 
expected any sparke of humanity. 

Our Captaine had in this small time discou- 
ered vp a great riuer, trending alongst into the 
maine about forty miles. The pleasantnesse 
whereof, with the safety of harbour for ship- 
ping, together with the fertility of ground and 
other fruits, which were generally by his whole 
company related, I omit, till I report of the 
whole discouery therein after performed. For 
by the breadth, depth and strong flood, imagin- 
ing it to run far vp into the land, he with speed 
returned, intending to flanke his light horsman 
for arrowes, least it might happen that the fur- 
ther part of the riuer should be narrow, and by 
that meanes subject to the volley of Saluageson 
either side out of the woods. 

Vntill his returne, our Captaine left on shore 
where he landed in a path (which seemed to 
be frequented) a pipe, a brooch and a knife, 
thereby to know if the Saluages had recourse 
that way, because they could at that time see 
none of them, but they were taken away before 
our returne thither. 

I returne now to our Saluages, who accord- 
ing to their appointment about one a clocke, 
came with 4 Canoas to the shoare of the iland 


St. George's River 


right ouer against vs, where they had lodged 
the last night, and sent one Canoa to vs with 
two of those Saluages, who had beene a bord, 
and another, who then seemed to haue com- 
mand of them ; for though we perceiued their 
willingnesse, yet he would not permit them 
to come abord ; but he hauing viewed vs and 
our ship, signed that he would go to the rest 
of the company and returne againe. Presently 
after their departure it began to raine, and con- 
tinued all that afternoone, so as they could not 
come to vs with their skins and furs, nor we 
go to them. But after an howre or there about, 
the three which had beene with vs before came 
againe, whom we had to our fire and couered 
them with our gownes. Our Captaine bestowed 
a shirt vpon him, whom we thought to be their 
chiefe, who seemed neuer to haue seene any 
before ; we gaue him a brooch to hang about 
his necke, a great knife, and lesser kniues to the 
two other, and to euery one of them a combe 
and glasse, the vse whereof we shewed them : 
whereat they laughed and tooke gladly ; we 
victualled them, and gaue them aqua vitae, 
which they tasted, but would by no meanes 
drinke ; our beueridge they liked well, we gaue 
them Sugar Candy, which after they had tasted 
they liked and desired more, and raisons which 
were giuen them ; and some of euery thing they 
would reserue to carry to their company. Where- 


George Waymouth 


fore we pittying their being in the raine, and 
therefore not able to get themselues victuall (as 
we thought) we gaue them bread and fish. 

Thus because we found the land a place an- 
swereable to the intent of our discouery, viz. fit 
for any nation to inhabit, we vsed the people 
with as great kindnes as we could deuise, or 
found them capable of. 

The next day, being Saturday and the first 
of June, I traded with the Saluages all the 
fore noone vpon the shore, where were eight 
and twenty of them : and because our ship rode 
nigh, we were but flue or sixe : where for kniues, 
glasses, combes and other trifles to the valewof 
foure or flue shillings, we had 40 good Beauers 
skins, Otters skins, Sables, and other small skins, 
which we knewe not how to call. Our trade 
being ended, many of them came abord vs, 
and did eat by our fire, and would be verie 
merrie and bold, in regard of our kinde vsage 
of them. Towards night our Captaine went on 
shore, to haue a draught with the Sein or Net. 
And we carried two of them with vs, who 
maruelled to see vs catch fish with a net. Most 
of that we caught we gaue them and their com- 
pany. Then on the shore I learned the names 
of diuers things of them : and when they per- 
ceiued me to note them downe, they would of 
themselues, fetch fishes, and fruit bushes, and 
stand by me to see me write their names. 


St. George's River 


Our Captaine shewed them a strange thing 
which they woondred at. His sword and mine 
hauing beene touched with the Loadstone, tooke 
vp a knife, and held it fast when they plucked 
it away, made the knife turne, being laid on a 
blocke, and touching it with his sword, made 
that take vp a needle, whereat they much mar- 
uelled. This we did to cause them to imagine 
some great power in vs : and for that to loue 
and feare vs. 

When we went on shore to trade with them, 
in one of their Canoas I saw their bowes and 
arrowes, which I tooke vp and drew an arrow 
in one of them, which I found to be of strength 
able to carry an arrow fiue or sixe score strong- 
lie ; and one of them tooke it and drew as we 
draw our bowes, not like the Indians. Their bow 
is made of Wich Hazell, and some of Beech 
in fashion much like our bowes, but they want 
nocks, onely a string of leather put through a 
hole at one end, and made fast with a knot at 
the other. Their arrowes are made of the same 
wood, some of Ash, big and long, with three 
feathers tied on, and nocked very artificiallie : 
headed with the long shanke bone of a Deere, 
made very sharpe with two fangs in manner of 
a harping iron. They haue likewise Darts, 
headed with like bone, one of which I darted 
among the rockes, and it brake not. These they 
vse very cunningly, to kill fish, fowle and beasts. 



George Waymouth 

Our Captaine had two of them at supper 
with vs in his cabbin to see their demeanure, 
and had them in presence at seruice: who be- 
haued themselues very ciuilly, neither laughing 
nor talking all the time, and at supper fed not 
like men of rude education, neither would they 
eat or drinke more than seemed to content 
nature ; they desired pease to carry a shore to 
their women, which we gaue them, with fish 
and bread, and lent them pewter dishes, which 
they carefully brought againe. 

In the evening another boat came to them 
on the shore, and because they had some Ta- 
bacco, which they brought for their owne vse, 
the other came for vs, making signe what they 
had, and offered to carry some of vs in their 
boat, but foure or hue of vs went with them in 
our owne boat : when we came on shore they 
gaue vs the best welcome they could, spreading 
fallow Deeres skins for vs to sit on the ground 
by their fire, and gaue vs of their Tabacco in 
our pipes, which was excellent, and so generally 
commended of vs all to be as good as any we 
euer tooke, being the simple leafe without any 
composition, strong, and of sweet taste ; they 
gaue us some to carry to our Captaine, whom 
they called our Bashabes ; neither did they re- 
quire any thing for it, but we would not receiue 
any thing from them without remuneration. 

Heere we saw foure of their women, who 


St. George's River 


stood behind them, as desirous to see vs, but 
not willing to be seene ; for before, whensoeuer 
we came on shore, they retired into the woods, 
whether it were in regard of their owne nat- 
urall modestie, being couered only as the men 
with the foresaid Beauers skins, or by the com- 
manding jealousy of their husbands, which we 
rather suspected, because it is an inclination 
much noted to be in Saluages ; wherfore we 
would by no meanes seeme to take any speciall 
notice of them. They were very well fauoured 
in proportion of countenance, though coloured 
blacke, low of stature, and fat, bare headed as 
the men, wearing their haire long : they had 
two little male children of a yeere and half 
old, as we judged, very fat and of good coun- 
tenances, which they loue tenderly, all naked, 
except their legs, which were couered with 
thin leather buskins tewed, fastened with strops 
to a girdle about their waste, which they girde 
very streight, and is decked round about with 
little round peeces of red Copper ; to these I 
gaue chaines and bracelets, glasses, and other 
trifles, which the Saluages seemed to accept in 
great kindnesse. 

At our comming away, we would haue had 
those two that supped with vs, to go abord and 
sleepe, as they had promised ; but it appeared 
their company would not surfer them. Where- 
at we might easily perceiue they were much 

greeued ; 


George Waymouth 


greeued ; but not long after our departure, they 
came with three more to our ship, signing to 
vs, that if one of our company would go lie on 
shore with them, they would stay with vs. Then 
Owen Griffin (one of the two we were to leaue 
in the Country, if we had thought it needfull or 
conuenient) went with them in their Canoa, and 
3 of them staied aborde vs, whom our whole 
company very kindly vsed. Our Captaine saw 
their lodging prouided, and them lodged in an 
old saile vpon the Orlop; and because they much 
feared our dogs, they were tied vp whensoeuer 
any of them came abord vs. 

Owen Griffin, which lay on the shore, re- 
ported vnto me their maner, and (as I may terme 
them) the ceremonies of their idolatry; which 
they performe thus. One among them (the eld- 
est of the Company, as he judged) riseth right 
vp, the other sitting still, and looking about, sud- 
denly cried with a loud voice, Baugh, Waugh : 
then the women fall downe, and lie vpon the 
ground, and the men all together answering the 
same, fall a stamping round about the fire with 
both feet, as hard as they can, making the ground 
shake, with sundry out-cries, and change of voice 
and sound. Many take the fire-sticks and thrust 
them into the earth, and then rest awhile : of 
a sudden beginning as before, they continue so 
stamping, till the yonger sort fetched from the 
shore many stones, of which euery man tooke 


St. George's River 

I2 -3 

one, and first beat vpon them with their fire- 
sticks, then with the stones beat the earth with 
all their strength. And in this maner (as he 
reported) they continued aboue two houres. 

After this ended, they which haue wiues take 
them apart, and withdraw themselues seuerally 
into the wood all night. 

The next morning, assoone as they saw the 
Sunne rise, they pointed to him to come with 
them to our shippe : and hauing receiued their 
men from vs, they came with fiue or sixe of 
their Canoas and Company houering about our 
ship ; to whom (because it was the Sabbath day) 
I signed they should depart, and at the next Sun 
rising we would goe along with them to their 
houses ; which they vnderstood (as we thought) 
and departed, some of their Canoas coursing 
about the Hand, and the other directly towards 
the maine. 

This day, about fiue a clocke after noone, 
came three other Canoas from the maine, of 
which some had beene with vs before ; and they 
came aboord vs, and brought vs Tabacco, which 
we tooke with them in their pipes, which were 
made of earth, very strong, blacke, and short 
containing a great quantity : some Tabacco they 
gaue vnto our Captaine, and some to me, in very 
ciuill kind maner. We requited them with bread 
and peaze, which they caried to their Company 
on shore, seeming very thankefull. After supper 



George Waymouth 

they returned with their Canoa to fetch vs a 
shore to take Tabacco with them there : with 
whom six or seuen of vs went, and caried some 
trifles, if peradventure they had any trucke, 
among which I caried some few biskets, to try 
if they would exchange for them, seeing they so 
well liked to eat them. When we came at shore, 
they most kindly entertained vs, taking vs by 
the hands, as they had obserued we did to them 
aboord, in token of welcome, and brought vs to 
sit downe by their fire, where sat together thir- 
teene of them. They filled their Tabacco pipe, 
which was then the short claw of a Lobster, 
which will hold ten of our pipes full, and we 
dranke of their excellent Tabacco as much as 
we would with them ; but we saw not any great 
quantity to trucke for ; and it seemed they had 
not much left of old, for they spend a great quan- 
tity yeerely by their continuall drinking : and 
they would signe vnto vs, that it was growen yet 
but a foot aboue ground, and would be aboue 
a yard high, with a leafe as broad as both their 
hands. They often would (by pointing to one 
part of the maine Eastward) signe vnto vs, that 
their Bashabes (that is, their King) had great 
plenty of Furres, and much Tabacco. When 
we had sufficiently taken Tabacco with them, I 
shewed some of our trifles for trade ; but they 
made signe that they had there nothing to 
exchange ; for (as I after conceiued) they had 


St. George's River 

l *5 

beene fishing and fowling, and so came thither 
to lodge that night by vs : for when we were 
ready to come away, they shewed vs great cups 
made very wittily of barke, in forme almost 
square, full of a red berry about the bignesse 
of a bullis, which they did eat, and gaue vs by 
handfuls ; of which (though I liked not the 
taste) yet I kept some, because I would by no 
meanesbut accept their kindnesse. They shewed 
me likewise a great piece of fish, whereof I 
tasted, and it was fat like Porpoise ; and another 
kinde of great scaly fish, broiled on the coales, 
much like white Salmon, which the French- 
men call Aloza, for these they would haue had 
bread ; which I refused, because in maner of 
exchange, I would alwayes make the greatest 
esteeme I could of our commodities whatso- 
euer; although they saw aboord our Captaine 
was liberall to giue them, to the end we might 
allure them still to frequent vs. Then they 
shewed me foure yoong Goslings, for which 
they required foure biskets, but I offered them 
two ; which they tooke and were well content. 

At our departure they made signe, that if any 
of vs would stay there on shore, some of them 
would go lie aboord vs : at which motion two 
of our Company stayed with them, and three 
of the Saluages lodged with vs in maner as the 
night before. 

Early the next morning, being Munday the 




George Waymouth 


third of June, when they had brought our 
men aboord, they came about our ship, ear- 
nestly by signes desiring that we would go with 
them along to the maine, for that there they 
had Furres and Tabacco to traffique with vs. 
Wherefore our Captaine manned the light- 
horseman with as many men as he could well, 
which were about fifteene with rowers and all ; 
and we went along with them. Two of their 
Canoas they sent away before, and they which 
lay aboord vs all night, kept company with vs 
to direct vs. 

This we noted as we went along, they in their 
Canoa with three oares, would at their will go 
ahead of vs and about vs, when we rowed with 
eight oares strong ; such was their swiftnesse, 
by reason of the lightnesse and artificiall com- 
position of their Canoa and oares. 

When we came neere the point where we 
saw their fires, where they intended to land, 
and where they imagined some few of vs would 
come on shore with our merchandize, as we had 
accustomed before; when they had often num- 
bred our men very diligently, they scoured away 
to their Company, not doubting we would haue 
followed them. But when we perceiued this, 
and knew not either their intents, or number 
of Saluages on the shore, our Captaine, after 
consultation, stood off, and wefted them to vs, 
determining that I should go on shore first to 



take a view of them, and what they had to traf- 
fique: if he, whom at our first sight of them 
seemed to be of most respect among them, and 
being then in the Canoa, would stay as a pawne 
for me. When they came to vs (notwithstand- 
ing all our former courtesies) he vtterly refused ; 
but would leaue a yoong Saluage : and for him 
our Captaine sent Griffin in their Canoa, while 
we lay hulling a little off. Griffin at his returne 
reported, thay had there assembled together, as 
he numbred them, two hundred eighty three 
Saluages, euery one his bowe and arrowes, with 
their dogges, and wolues which theykeepe tame 
at command, and not anything to exchange at 
all ; but would haue drawen vs further vp into a 
little narrow nooke of a riuer, for their Furres, 
as they pretended. 

These things considered, we began to joyne 
them in the ranke of other Saluages, who haue 
beene by trauellers in most discoueries found 
very trecherous ; neuer attempting mischiefe, 
vntill by some remisnesse, fit opportunity af- 
foordeth them certaine ability to execute the 
same. Wherefore after good advice taken, we 
determined so soone as we could to take some 
of them, least (being suspitious we had discou- 
ered their plots) they should absent themselues 
from vs. 

Tuesday, the fourth of June, our men tooke 
Cod and Hadocke with hooks by our ship side, 




George Waymouth 

and Lobsters very great ; which before we had 
not tried. 

About eight a clocke this day we went on 
shore with our boats, to fetch aboord water 
and wood, our Captaine leauing word with the 
Gunner in the shippe, by discharging a mus- 
ket, to giue notice if they espied any Canoa 
comming; which they did about ten a clocke. 
He therefore being carefull they should be 
kindly entreated, requested me to go aboord, 
intending with dispatch to make what haste 
after he possibly could. When I came to the 
ship, there were two Canoas, and in either of 
them three Saluages ; of whom two were be- 
low at the fire, the other staied in their Canoas 
about the ship ; and because we could not en- 
tice them abord, we gaue them a Canne of pease 
and bread, which they carried to the shore to 
eat. But one of them brought backe our Canne 
presently and staid abord with the other two ; 
for he being yoong, of a ready capacity, and 
one we most desired to bring with vs into 
England, had receiued exceeding kinde vsage at 
our hands, and was therefore much delighted 
in our company. When our Captaine was come, 
we consulted how to catch the other three at 
shore which we performed thus. 

We manned the light horseman with J or 
8 men, one standing before carried our box 
cf Marchandise, as we were woont when I 


St. Georges River 


went to traffique with them, and a platter of 
pease, which meat they loued : but before we 
were landed, one of them (being too suspitiously 
feareful of his owne good) withdrew himselfe 
into the wood. The other two met vs on the 
shore side, to receiue the pease, with whom we 
went vp the ClifFe to their fire and sate downe 
with them, and whiles we were discussing how 
to catch the third man who was gone, I opened 
the box, and shewed them trifles to exchange, 
thinking thereby to haue banisht feare from the 
other, and drawen him to returne : but when 
we could not, we vsed little delay, but suddenly 
laid hands vpon them. And it was as much as 
fiue or sixe of vs could doe to get them into the 
light horseman. For they were strong and so 
naked as our best hold was by their long haire 
on their heads ; and we would haue beene very 
loath to haue done them any hurt, which of 
necessity we had beene constrained to haue done 
if we had attempted them in a multitude, which 
we must and would, rather than haue wanted 
them, being a matter of great importance for 
the full accomplement of our voyage. 

Thus we shipped fiue Saluages, two Canoas, 
with all their bowes and arrowes. 

The next day we made an end of getting 
our wood aboord, and filled our empty caske 
with water. 

Thursday, the 6 of June, we spent in be- 


George Waymouth 

stowing the Canoas vpon the orlop safe from 
hurt, because they were subject to breaking, 
which our Captaine was carefull to preuent. 

Saturday the eight of June (our Captaine 
being desirous to finish all businesse about this 
harbour) very early in the morning, with the 
light horseman, coasted fiue or sixe leagues 
about the Hands adjoining, and sounded all 
along wheresoeuer we went. He likewise dili- 
gently searched the mouth of the Harbour, and 
about the rocks which shew themselues at all 
times, and are an excellent breach of the water, 
so as no Sea can come in to offend the Harbour. 
This he did to instruct himselfe, and thereby 
able to direct others that shall happen to come 
to this place. For euery where both neere the 
rocks, & in all soundings about the Hands, we 
neuer found lesse water than foure and fiue fath- 
oms, which was seldome ; but seuen, eight, nine 
and ten fathoms is the continuall sounding by 
the shore. In some places much deeper vpon 
clay oaze or soft sand : so that if any bound for 
this place, should be either driuen or scanted 
with winds, he shall be able (with his direc- 
tions) to recouer safely his harbour most securely 
in water enough by foure seuerall passages, more 
than which I thinke no man of judgement will 
desire as necessarie. 

Vpon one of the Hands (because it had a 
pleasant sandy Coue for small barks to ride in) 


St. George's River 

l 3 l 

we landed, and found hard by the shore a pond 
of fresh water, which flowed ouer the banks, 
somewhat ouer growen with little shrub trees, 
and searching vp in the Hand, we saw it fed 
with a strong run, which with small labour, 
and little time, might be made to driue a mill. 
In this Hand, as in the other, were spruce trees 
of excellent timber and height, able to mast 
ships of great burthen. 

While we thus sounded from one place to 
another in so good deepes, our Captaine to make 
some triall of the fishing himselfe, caused a 
hooke or two to be cast out at the mouth of the 
harbour, not aboue halfe a league from our ship, 
where in small time only, with the baits which 
they cut from the fish and three hooks, we got 
fish enough for our whole Company (though 
now augmented) for three daies. Which I omit 
not to report, because it sheweth how great a 
profit the fishing would be, they being so plen- 
tifull, so great, and so good, with such conuen- 
ient drying as can be wished, neere at hand 
vpon the Rocks. 

This day, about one a clocke after noone, 
came from the Eastward two Canoas abord vs, 
wherein was he that refused to stay with vs for 
a pawne, and with him six other Saluages which 
we had not seene before, who had beautified 
themselues after their manner very gallantly, 
though their clothing was not differing from 


!3 2 

George Waymouth 

the former, yet they had newly painted their 
faces very deep, some all blacke, some red, with 
stripes of excellent blew ouer their vpper lips, 
nose and chin. One of them ware a kinde of 
Coronet about his head, made very cunningly, 
of a substance like stiffe haire coloured red, 
broad, and more than a handfull in depth, 
which we imagined to be some ensigne of his 
superioritie ; for he so much esteemed it as he 
would not for any thing exchange the same. 
Other ware the white feathered skins of some 
fowle, round about their head, jewels in their 
ears, and bracelets of little white round bone, 
fastned together vpon a leather string. These 
made not any shew that they had notice of the 
other before taken, but we vnderstood them by 
their speech and signes, that they came sent 
from the Bashabes, and that his desire was that 
we would bring vp our ship (which they call 
as their owne boats, a Quiden) to his house, 
being, as they pointed, vpon the main towards 
the East, from whence they came, and that he 
would exchange with vs for Furres and Ta- 
bacco. But because our Company was but small, 
and now our desire was with speed to discouer 
vp the river, we let them vnderstand, that if 
their Bashabes would come to vs, he should be 
welcome, but we would not remoue to him. 
Which when they vnderstood (receiuing of vs 
bread and fish, and euery of them a knife) they 

departed ; 

St. George's River 


departed ; for we had then no will to stay them 
long abord, least they should discouer the other 
Saluages which we had stowed below. 

Tuesday, the 1 1 of June, we passed vp into 
the riuer with our ship, about six and twenty 
miles. Of which I had rather not write, then 
by my relation to detract from the worthinesse 
thereof. For the Riuer, besides that it is sub- 
ject by shipping to bring in all traffiques of 
Marchandise, a benefit alwaies accounted the 
richest treasury to any land : for which cause 
our Thames hath that due denomination, and 
France by her nauigable Riuers receiueth hir 
greatest wealth ; yet this place of it selfe from 
God and nature affoordeth as much diuersitie 
of good commodities, as any reasonable man 
can wish, for present habitation and planting. 

The first and chiefest thing required, is a bold 
coast and faire land to fall with ; the next, a safe 
harbour for ships to ride in. 

The first is a speciall attribute to this shore, 
being most free from sands or dangerous rocks 
in a continuall good depth, with a most excel- 
lent land-fall, which is the first Hand we fell 
with, named by vs, Saint Georges Hand. For 
the second, by judgement of our Captaine, who 
knoweth most of the coast of England, and 
most of other Countries, (hauing beene expe- 
rienced by imployments in discoueries and trau- 
els from his childhood) and by opinion of others 




George Waymouth 

of good judgement in our shippe, heere are more 
good harbours for ships of all burthens, than 
England can affoord, and far more secure from 
all winds and weathers, than any in England, 
Scotland, France or Spaine. For besides with- 
out the Riuer in the channell, and sounds about 
the ilands adjoining to the mouth thereof, no 
better riding can be desired for an infinite num- 
ber of ships. The Riuer it selfe as it runneth 
vp into the main very nigh forty miles toward 
the great mountaines, beareth in bredth a mile, 
sometime three quarters, and halfe a mile is 
the narrowest, where you shall neuer haue 
vnder 4 and 5 fathoms water hard by the shore, 
but 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 fathoms all along, and on 
both sides euery halfe mile very gallant Coues, 
some able to conteine almost a hundred saile, 
where the ground is excellent soft oaze with 
a tough clay vnder for anker hold, and where 
ships may ly without either Cable or Anker, 
only mored to the shore with a Hauser. 

It floweth by their judgement eighteen or 
twenty foot at high water. 

Heere are made by nature most excellent 
places, as Docks to graue or Carine ships of all 
burthens ; secured from all windes, which is 
such a necessary incomparable benefit, that in 
few places in England, or in any parts of Chris- 
tendome, art, with great charges, can make the 


St. George's River 

J 35 

Besides, the bordering land is a most rich 
neighbour trending all along on both sides, 
in an equall plaine, neither mountainous nor 
rocky, but verged with a greene bordure of 
grasse, doth make tender vnto the beholder of 
hir pleasant fertility, if by clensing away the 
woods she were conuerted into meddow. 

The wood she beareth is not shrubbish fit 
only for fewell, but goodly tall Firre, Spruce, 
Birch, Beech, Oke, which in many places is 
not so thicke, but may with small labour be 
made feeding ground, being plentifull like the 
outward Hands with fresh water, which stream- 
eth downe in many places. 

As we passed with a gentle winde vp with 
our ship in this Riuer, any man may conceiue 
with what admiration we all consented in joy. 
Many of our Company who had beene trauel- 
lers in sundry countries, and in the most famous 
Riuers, yet affirmed them not comparable to 
this they now beheld. Some that were with 
Sir Walter Ralegh in his voyage to Guiana, in 
the discouery of the Riuer Orenoque, which 
echoed fame to the worlds eares, gaue reasons 
why it was not to be compared with this, which 
wanteth the dangers of many Shoules, and 
broken ground, wherewith that was incombred. 
Others before that notable Riuer in the West 
Indies called Rio Grande; some before the 
Riuer of Loyer, the Riuer Seine, and of Bur- 


i 3 6 

George Waymouth 

A bend or 




deaux in France, which although they be great 
and goodly Riuers, yet it is no detraction from 
them to be accounted inferiour to this, which 
not only yeeldeth all the foresaid pleasant pro- 
fits, but also appeared infallibly to vs free from 
all inconueniences. 

I will not prefer it before our riuer of Thames, 
because it is Engiands richest treasure ; but we 
all did wish those excellent Harbours, good 
deeps in a continuall conuenient breadth, and 
small tide-gates, to be as well therein for our 
countries good, as we found the here (beyond 
our hopes) in certaine, for those to whom it 
shall please God to grant this land for habita- 
tion ; which if it had, with the other insepara- 
ble adherent commodities here to be found ; 
then I would boldly affirme it to be the most 
rich, beautifull, large & secure harbouring riuer 
that the world affoordeth. 

Wednesday, the twelfth of June, our Cap- 
taine manned his light-horseman with 1 7 men, 
and ranne vp from the ship riding in the riuer 
vp to the codde thereof, where we landed, 
leauing six to keepe the light-horseman till 
our returne. Ten of vs with our shot, and some 
armed, with a boy to carry powder and match, 
marched vp into the countrey towards the 
mountaines, which we descried at our first fall- 
ing with the land. Vnto some of them the 
riuer brought vs so neere, as we judged our 


St. George's River 


selues when we landed to haue beene within 
a league of them ; but we marched vp about 
foure miles in the maine, and passed ouer three 
hilles : and because the weather was parching 
hot, and our men in their armour not able to 
trauel farre and returne that night to our ship, 
we resolued not to passe any further, being all 
very weary of so tedious and laboursoma trauell. 
In this march we passed ouer very good 
ground, pleasant and fertile, fit for pasture, for 
the space of some three miles, hauing but little 
wood, and that Oke like stands left in our pas- 
tures in England, good and great, fit timber for 
any vse. Some small Birch, Hazle and Brake, 
which might in small time with few men be 
cleansed and made good arable land : but as it 
now is will feed cattell of all kindes with fodder 
enough for Summer and Winter. The soile is 
blacke, bearing sundry hearbs, grasse, and straw- 
berries bigger than ours in England. In many 
places are lowe Thicks like our Copisses of 
small yoong wood. And surely it did all re- 
semble a stately Parke, wherein appeare some 
old trees with high withered tops, and other 
flourishing with liuing greene boughs. Vpon 
the hilles grow notable high timber trees, masts 
for ships of 400 tun : and at the bottome of 
euery hill, a little run of fresh water ; but the 
furthest and last we passed, ranne with a great 
streame able to driue a mill. 


i 3 8 

George Waymouth 

We might see in some places where fallow 
Deere and Hares had beene, and by the rooting 
of ground we supposed wilde Hogs had ranged 
there, but we could descrie no beast, because 
our noise still chased them from vs. 

We were no sooner come aboord our light- 
horseman, returning towards our ship, but we 
espied a Canoa comming from the further part 
of the Cod of the riuer Eastward, which hasted 
to vs ; wherein, with two others, was he who 
refused to stay for a pawne : and his comming 
was very earnestly importing to haue one of our 
men to go lie on shore with their Bashabes 
(who was there on shore, as they signed) and 
then the next morning he would come to our 
ship with many Furres and Tabacco. This we 
perceiued to be only a meere deuice to get 
possession of any of our men, to ransome all 
those which we had taken, which their naturall 
policy could not so shadow, but we did easily 
discouer and preuent. These meanes were by 
this Saluage practised, because we had one of 
his kinsemen prisoner, as we judged by his most 
kinde vsage of him being aboord vs together. 

Thursday, the i 3 of June, by two a clocke 
in the morning (because our Captaine would 
take the helpe and aduantage of the tide) in 
the light-horseman with our Company well 
prouided and furnished with armour and shot 
both to defend and offend ; we went from our 


Thomaston, Maine 


ship vp to that part of the riuer which trended 
Westward into the maine, to search that : and 
we carried with vs a Crosse, to erect at that 
point, which (because it was not daylight) we 
left on the shore vntill our returne backe; when 
we set it vp in maner as the former. For this 
(by the way) we diligently obserued, that in 
no place, either about the Hands, or vp in the 
maine, or alongst the riuer, we could discerne 
any token or signe, that euer any Christian had 
beene before; of which either by cutting wood, 
digging for water, or setting vp Crosses (a thing 
neuer omitted by any Christian trauellers) we 
should haue perceiued some mention left. 

But to returne to our riuer, further vp into 
which we then rowed by estimation twenty 
miles, the beauty and goodnesse whereof I can 
not by relation sufficiently demonstrate. That 
which I can say in generall is this : What profit 
or pleasure soeuer is described and truly veri- 
fied in the former part of the riuer, is wholly 
doubled in this ; for the bredth and depth is 
such, that any ship drawing 1 7 or 1 8 foot water, 
might haue passed as farre as we went with our 
light-horsman, and by all our mens judgement 
much further, because we left it in so good depth 
and bredth ; which is so much the more to be 
esteemed of greater woorth, by how much it 
trendeth further vp into the maine : for from 
the place of our ships riding in the Harbour at 




George Waymouth 

the entrance into the Sound, to the furthest 
part we were in this riuer, by our estimation 
was not much lesse than threescore miles. 

From ech banke of this riuer are diuers 
branching streames into the maine, wherby is 
arfoorded an vnspeakable profit by the conuen- 
iency of transportation from place to place, 
which in some countries is both chargeable; and 
not so fit, by cariages on waine, or horse backe. 

Heere we saw great store of fish, some great, 
leaping aboue water, which we judged to be 
Salmons. All along is an excellent mould of 
ground. The wood in most places, especially 
on the East side, very thinne, chiefly oke and 
some small young birch, bordering low vpon 
the riuer; all fit for medow and pasture ground : 
and in that space we went, we had on both 
sides the riuer many plaine plots of medow, 
some of three or foure acres, some of eight 
or nine : so as we judged in the whole to be 
betweene thirty and forty acres of good grasse, 
and where the armes run out into the Maine, 
there likewise went a space on both sides of 
cleere grasse, how far we know not, in many 
places we might see paths made to come downe 
to the watering. 

The excellencie of this part of the Riuer, 
for his good breadth, depth, and fertile border- 
ing ground, did so ravish vs all with variety of 
pleasantnesse, as we could not tell what to 


St. George's River 


commend, but only admired; some compared 
it to the Riuer Seuerne, (but in a higher degree) 
and we all concluded (as I verily thinke we 
might rightly) that we should neuer see the 
like Riuer in every degree equall, vntill it 
pleased God we beheld the same againe. For 
the farther we went, the more pleasing it was 
to euery man, alluring vs still with expectation 
of better, so as our men, although they had 
with great labour rowed long and eat nothing 
(for we carried with vs no victuall, but a little 
cheese and bread) yet they were so refreshed 
with the pleasant beholding thereof, and so 
loath to forsake it, as some of them affirmed, 
they would haue continued willingly with that 
onely fare and labour 2 daies ; but the tide not 
suffering vs to make any longer stay (because 
we were to come backe with the tide) and our 
Captaine better knowing what was fit then we, 
and better what they in labour were able to 
endure, being verie loath to make any desper- 
ate hazard, where so little necessitie required, 
thought it best to make returne, because whither 
we had discouered was sufficient to conceiue 
that the Riuer ran very far into the land. For 
we passed six or seuen miles, altogether fresh 
water (whereof we all dranke) forced vp by 
the flowing of the Salt : which after a great 
while eb, where we left it, by breadth of chan- 
nell and depth of water was likely to run by 



George Waymouth 

estimation of our whole company an unknowen 
way farther : the search whereof our Captaine 
hath left till his returne, if it shall so please 
God to dispose of him and vs. 

For we hauing now by the direction of the 
omnipotent disposer of all good intents (far 
beyond the period of our hopes) fallen with so 
bold a coast, found so excellent and secure har- 
bour, for as many ships as any nation profess- 
ing Christ is able to set forth to Sea, discouered 
a Riuer, which the All-creating God, with his 
most liberall hand, hath made aboue report not- 
able with his foresaid blessings, bordered with a 
land, whose pleasant fertility bewraieth it selfe 
to be the garden of nature, wherin she only 
intended to delight hir selfe, hauing hitherto 
obscured it to any, except to a purblind gen- 
eration, whose vnderstanding it hath pleased 
God so to darken, as they can neither discerne, 
vse, or rightly esteeme the vnualuable riches 
in middest whereof they live sensually content 
with the barke and outward rinds, as neither 
knowing the sweetnes of the inward marrow, 
nor acknowledging the Deity of the Almighty 
giuer : hauing I say thus far proceeded, and 
hauing some of the inhabitant nation (of best 
vnderstanding we saw among them) who (learn- 
ing our language) may be able to giue vs fur- 
ther instruction, concerning all the premised 
particulars, as also of their gouernours, and gou- 


St. George's River 


ernment, situation of townes, and what else shall 
be conuenient, which by no meanes otherwise 
we could by any obseruation of our selues learne 
in a long time : our Captaine now wholy in- 
tended his prouision for speedy returne. For 
although the time of yeere and our victuall 
were not so spent, but we could haue made a 
longer voyage, in searching farther and trading 
for very good commodities, yet as they might 
haue beene much profitable, so (our company 
being small) much more preiudiciall to the 
whole state of our voyage, which we were most 
regardfull now not to hazard. For we supposing 
not a little present priuate profit, but a publique 
good, and true zeale of promulgating Gods holy 
Church, by planting Christianity, to be the sole 
intent of the Honourable setters foorth of this 
discouery ; thought it generally most expedi- 
ent, by our speedy returne, to giue the longer 
space of time to make prouision for so weighty 
an enterprise. 

Friday, the 14 day of June, early by foure a 
clocke in the morning, with the tide, our two 
boats, and a little helpe of the winde, we rowed 
downe to the riuers mouth and there came to 
an anker about eleuen a clocke. Afterward our 
Captaine in the light horseman searched the 
sounding all about the mouth and comming to 
the Riuer, for his certaine instruction of a per- 
fect description. 


i 4 4 

George Waymouth 

The next day, being Saturday, we wayed an- 
ker, and with a briese from the land, we sailed 
vp to our watering place, and there stopped, 
went on shore and filled all our empty caske 
with fresh water. 

Our Captaine vpon the Rocke in the middest 
of the harbour obserued the height, latitude, and 
variation exactly vpon his instruments. 

i Astrolabe. 5 And an excellent com- 

2 Semisphere. passe made for the 

3 Ringe instrument. variation. 

4 Crosse staffe. 

The certainty whereof, together with the 
particularities of euery depth and sounding, as 
well at our falling with the land, as in the dis- 
couery, and at our departure from the coast ; 
I refer to his owne relation in the Map of his 
Geographicall description, which for the bene- 
fit of others he intendeth most exactly to pub- 

The temperature of the Climate (albeit a very 
important matter) I had almost passed without 
mentioning, because it arFoorded to vs no great 
alteration from our disposition in England; 
somewhat hotter vp into the Maine, because it 
lieth open to the South; the aire so wholesome, 
as I suppose not any of vs found our selues at 
any time more healthfull, more able to labour, 
nor with better stomacks to such good fare, as 
we partly brought, and partly found. 


The Fishing Banks 


Sunday, the 1 6 of June, the winde being faire, 
and because we had set out of England vpon a 
Sunday, made the Hands vpon a Sunday, and as 
we doubt not (by Gods appointment) happily 
fell into our harbour vpon a Sunday; so now 
(beseeching him still with like prosperity to 
blesse our returne into England our country, and 
from thence with his good will and pleasure to 
hasten our next arriuall there) we waied Anker 
and quit the Land vpon a Sunday. 

Tuesday, the 1 8 day, being not run aboue 30 
leagues from land, and our Captaine for his cer- 
taine knowledge how to fall with the coast, hau- 
ing sounded euery watch, and from 40 fathoms 
had come into good deeping, to 70, and so to 
an hundred : this day the weather being faire, 
after the foure a clocke watch, when we sup- 
posed not to haue found ground so farre from 
land, and before sounded in aboue 1 00 fathoms, 
we had ground in 24 fathomes. Wherefore 
our sailes being downe, Thomas King boat- 
swaine, presently cast out a hooke, and before 
he judged it at ground, was fished and haled 
vp an exceeding great and well fed Cod : then 
there were cast out 3 or 4 more, and the fish 
was so plentifull and so great, as when our 
Captaine would haue set saile, we all desired 
him to suffer them to take fish a while, because 
we were so delighted to see them catch so great 
fish, so fast as the hooke came down : some 


The Fishing 


George Waymouth 

Cod-liver oil 

with playing with the hooke they tooke by the 
backe, and one of the Mates with two hookes 
at a lead at fiue draughts together haled vp 
tenne fishes ; all were generally very great, some 
they measured to be fiue foot long, and three 
foot about. 

This caused our Captaine not to maruell at 
the shoulding, for he perceiued it was a fish 
banke, which (for our farewell from the land) 
it pleased God in continuance of his blessings 
to giue vs knowledge of: the abundant profit 
whereof should be alone sufficient cause to draw 
men againe, if there were no other good both 
in present certaine, and in hope probable to 
be discouered. To amplifie this with words, 
were to adde light to the Sunne : for euery one 
in the shippe could easily account this present 
commodity; much more those of judgement, 
which knew what belonged to fishing, would 
warrant (by the helpe of God) in a short voyage 
with few good fishers to make a more profit- 
able returne from hence than from Newfound- 
land: the fish being so much greater, better 
fed, and abundant with traine ; of which some 
they desired, and did bring into England to 
bestow among their friends, and to testifie the 
true report. 

After, we kept our course directly for Eng- 
land & with ordinary winds, and sometime 
calmes, vpon Sunday the 14 of July about sixe a 


Maine Indians 


clocke at night, we were come into sounding 
in our channell, but with darke weather and 
contrary winds, we were constrained to beat 
vp and downe till Tuesday the 16 of July, when 
by fiue a clocke in the morning we made Sylly ; 
from whence, hindered with calmes and small 
winds, vpon Thursday the 1 8 of July about 
foure a clocke after noone, we came into Dart- 
mouth : which Hauen happily (with Gods gra- 
cious assistance) we made our last and first 
Harbour in England. 

Further, I haue thought fit here to adde some 
things worthy to be regarded, which we haue 
obserued from the Saluages since we tooke 

First, although at the time when we sur- 
prised them, they made their best resistance, not 
knowing our purpose, nor what we were, nor 
how we meant to vse them ; yet after perceiu- 
ing by their kinde vsage we intended them no 
harme, they haue neuer since seemed discon- 
tented with vs, but very tractable, louing, & 
willing by their best meanes to satisfie vs in any 
thing we demand of them, by words or signes 
for their vnderstanding : neither haue they at 
any time beene at the least discord among them- 
selues; insomuch as we haue not seene them 
angry but merry ; and so kinde, as if you giue 
anything to one of them, he will distribute part 
to euery one of the rest. 



George Waymouth 

We haue brought them to vnderstand some 
English, and we vnderstand much of their lan- 
guage ; so as we are able to aske them many 
things. And this we haue obserued, that if we 
shew them any thing, and aske them if they 
haue it in their countrey, they will tell you if 
they haue it, and the vse of it, the difference 
from ours in bignesse, colour, or forme; but if 
they haue it not, be it a thing neuer so precious, 
they wil denie the knowledge of it. 

They haue names for many starres, which 
they will shew in the firmament. 

They shew great reuerence to their King, 
and are in great subiection to their Gouernours : 
and they will shew a great respect to any we 
tell them are our Commanders. 

They shew the maner how they make bread 
of their Indian wheat, and how they make but- 
ter and cheese of the milke they haue of the 
Rain-Deere and Fallo-Deere, which they haue 
tame as we haue Cowes. 

They haue excellent colours. And hauing 
seene our Indico, they make shew of it, or of 
some other like thing which maketh as good 
a blew. 

One especiall thing is their maner of killing 
the Whale, which they call Powdawe ; and will 
describe his forme ; how he bloweth vp the 
water; and that he is 1 2 fathoms long; and that 
they go in company of their King with a mul- 

Coast of Maine 


titude of their boats, and strike him with a bone 
made in fashion of a harping iron fastened to 
a rope, which they make great and strong of 
the barke of trees, which they veare out after 
him; then all their boats come about him, and 
as he riseth aboue water, with their arrowes 
they shoot him to death ; when they haue killed 
him & dragged him to shore, they call all their 
chiefe lords together, & sing a song of joy : and 
those chiefe lords, whom they call Sagamos, 
divide the spoile, and giue to euery man a share, 
which pieces so distributed they hang vp about 
their houses for prouision : and when they boile 
them, they blow off the fat, and put to their 
peaze, maiz, and other pulse, which they eat. 

A briefe Note of what profits we saw the Coun- 
trey yeeld in the small time of our stay there. 


Oke of an excellent graine, Ash. 

strait, and great timber. Maple. 
Elme. Yew. 

Beech. Spruce. 

Birch, very tall & great ; Aspe. 
of whose barke they Firre. 
make their Canoas. Many fruit trees, which 
Wich-Hazell. we knew not. 



1 S° 

George Waymouth 





Ducks great. 









Many birds of sundrie 

Many other fowls in 

flocks, vnknown. 













Wilde great Cats. 

Dogges: some like 

Wolues, some like 





Cod very great. 

Haddocke great. 

Herring great. 




Lobstar great. 


Muscels great, with pearles 

in them. 
Cunner fish. 

Frvits, Plants, and Herbs. 

Tabacco, excellent sweet 

and strong. 
Currant trees. 






Coast of Maine 

iS 1 

Angelica, a most souer- Very good Dies, which 

aigne herbe. 
An hearbe that spreadeth 
the ground, & smelleth 
like Sweet Marioram, 
great plenty. 

appeare by their paint- 
ing ; which they carrie 
with them in bladders. 

The names of the fiue Saluages which we 
brought home into England, which are all yet 
aliue, are these. 

i. Tahanedo, a Sagamo or Commander. 

i. Amoret. 1 

3. Skicowaros I Gentlemen. 

4. Maneddo J 

5. Saffacomoit, a seruant. 

or Nahanada 
or Skidwares 

George ^opjjam 

&ak$ (gilbert 



The Popham Colony at Sagadahock, on the western 
side of the entrance to the Kenebeck river, was estab- 
lished by the members of the first Virginia Company, 
which was chartered by King James in 1 606, who lived 
at Plymouth and elsewhere in the west of England. 
The London members of the Company made their settle- 
ment at Jamestown. The leader of the Plymouth part- 
ners was Sir Ferdinando Gorges, with whom were 
associated members of the Popham and Gilbert families. 
They equipped two exploring expeditions in the autumn 
of 1 606, one of them being under the command of Martin 
Pring, whose account of his voyage of 1 603 is printed 
in this volume. Pring s report determined the Plymouth 
partners to attempt a settlement on the Maine coast. 
Two vessels were fitted out and George Popham, a 
nephew of the Chief Justice, Sir John Popham, and 
Ralegh Gilbert, a son of Sir Humphrey, were placed in 
charge of the expedition. 

The narrative of the voyage was written by one of 
the officers, probably the navigator or pilot of Gilbert's 
vessel, the " Mary and John," whose name may have 
been James Davies. This account, which is preserved 
in the Library of Lambeth Palace, London, was printed 
in the fourth volume of the Gorges Society publications, 
Portland, 189a, with notes by the Rev. Henry O. 
Thayer. That Society, through Mr. H. W. Bryant of 
Portland, has kindly loaned the facsimiles of the draw- 
ings which illustrate the manuscript, for reproduction 
in this volume. 



of a Voyage unto New Eng- 
land. Began from the Lizard, 
y first of June 1607, by Cap- 
tain Popham in y ship f Gift, 
& Captain Gilbert in y Mary 
& John. 

Written by #**##*& found 
amongst y Papers of y truly Wor- 
shipfull: Sr. Ferdinando Gorges, Kt. 
by me William Griffith. 

DEPARTED from the Lyzard the firste 
daye of June Ano Domi 1607, be- 
inge Mundaye about 6 of the Cloke 
in the afternoon and ytt bore of me then North- 
este and by North eyght Leags of. 

*1» *!• fcl> vt - *1» •■!* -I* 

*y» ^^ ^» ^» ^» ^" «x» 

The firste Dayeof Jullybeinge Wesdaye wee 
depted from the Illand of flowers beinge ten 
Leags South weste from ytt. 

From hence we allwayes kept our Course to 
the Westward as much as wind & weather 







Popham and Gilbert 


woold permytt untill the 27th daye of Jully 
duringe which time wee often times Sounded 
but could never fynd grounde. this 27th early 
in the mornynge we Sounded & had ground 
but 1 8 fetham beinge then in the Lattitud of 
43 degrees & ^ hear wee fysht three howers 
& tooke near to hundred of Cods very great & 
large fyshe bigger & larger fyshe then that 
which corns from the bancke of the New Found 
Land hear wee myght have lodden our shipe 
in Lesse time then a moneth. 

From hence the Wynd beinge att South west 
wee sett our Saills & stood by the wind west 
nor west towards the Land allwayes Soundinge 
for our better knowledg as we ran towarde the 
main Land from this bancke. 

From this bancke we kept our Course west 
nor west 36 Leags which ys from the 27th of 
July untill the 30th of July in which tyme we 
ran 36 L as ys beffore sayed & then we Saw the 
Land about 1 o of the Clok in the mornynge 
bearinge norweste from us About 10 Leags & 
then we Sounded & had a hundred fethams 
blacke oze hear as we Cam in towards the Land 
from this bancke we still found deepe watter. 
the deepest within the bancke ys 160 fethams 
& in 100 fetham you shall See the Land yf ytt 
be Clear weather after you passe the bancke the 
ground ys still black oze untill yo Com near the 
shore this daye wee stood in for the Land but 


Nova Scotia 

r 57 

Could nott recover ytt beffor the night tooke 
us so we stood a Lyttell from ytt & thear strok 
a hull untill the next daye beinge the Laste of 
July hear Lyeinge at hull we tooke great stor 
of cod fyshes the bigeste & largest that I ever 
Saw or any man in our ship, this daye beinge 
the Last of July about 3 of the Clok in the 
after noon we recouered the shor & cam to an 
anker under an Illand for all this Cost ys full of 
Illands & broken Land but very Sound & good 
for shipinge to go by them the watter deepe. 
1 8 & 20 fetham hard abord them. 

This Illand standeth in the lattitud of 44 d & 
Yz & hear we had nott ben att an anker past to 
howers beffore we espyed a bisken shallop Com- 
inge towards us havinge in her eyght Sallvages 
& a Lyttell salvage boye they cam near unto 
us & spoke unto us in thear Language. & we 
makinge Seignes to them that they should com 
abord of us showinge unto them knyues glasses 
beads & throwinge into thear bott Som bisket 
but for all this they wold nott com abord of us 
but makinge show to go from us. we suffered 
them. So when they wear a Lyttell from us 
and Seeinge we proffered them no wronge of 
thear owne accord retorned & cam abord of 
us & three of them stayed all that nyght with 
us the rest departed in the shallope to the shore 
makinge Seignes unto us that they wold retorn 
unto us aggain the next daye. 


Lunenburg or 
La Heve 
Nova Scotia 



Popham and Gilbert 


The next daye the Sam Salvages with three 
Salvage wemen beinge the fryst daye of Au- 
guste retorned unto us bringinge with them 
Som feow skines of bever in an other bisken 
shallop & propheringe thear skines to trook 
with us but they demanded ouer muche for 
them and we Seemed to make Lyght of them 
So then the other three which had stayed with 
us all nyght went into the shallop & So they 
departed ytt Seemeth that the french hath trad 
with them for they use many french words the 
Cheeff Comander of these parts ys called Mes- 
samott & the ryver or harbor ys called eman- 
nett we take these peopell to be the tarentyns 
& these peopell as we have Learned sence do 
make wars with Sasanoa the CheefFe Comander 
to the westward wheare we have planted & this 
Somer they kild his Sonne So the Salvages de- 
parted from us & cam no mor unto us After 
they wear departed from us we hoyssed out our 
bot whearin my Selffe was with 1 2 others & 
rowed to the shore and landed on this Illand 
that we rod under the which we found to be a 
gallant Illand full of heigh & myghty trees of 
Sundry Sorts hear we allso found aboundance 
of gusberyes strawberyes rasberyes & whorts 
So we retorned & Cam abord. 

Sondaye beinge the second of Auguste after 
dyner our bott went to the shore again to fille 
freshe watter whear after they had filled thear 


Nova Scotia 


watter thear cam fower Salvages unto them 
havinge thear bowes & arowes in thear hands 
makinge show unto them to have them Com 
to the shore but our Saillers havinge filled thear 
watter wold nott go to the shore unto them but 
retorned & cam abord beinge about 5 of the 
Clock in the afternoon So the bott went pre- 
sently from the ship unto a point of an Illand 
& thear att Lo watter in on hower kild near 
,50. great Lopsters you shall See them whear 
they ly in shold Watter nott past a yeard deep 
& with a great hooke mad faste to a stafFe you 
shall hitch them up thear ar great store of them 
you may near Lad a Ship with them. & they 
are of greatt bignesse I have nott Seen the Lyke 
in Ingland So the bott retorned abord & wee 
toke our bott in & about myd nyght the wynd 
cam faier att northest we Sett Saill & departed 
from thence keepinge our Course South west 
for So the Cost Lyeth. 

Mundaye being the third of Auguste in 
the morninge we wear faier by the shore and 
So Sailled alongste the Coste we Saw many 
Illands all alonge the Cost & great Sounds, 
goinge betwyxt them, but We could make 
prooffe of non for want of a penyshe hear 
we found fyshe still all alonge the Cost as we 

Tusdaye being the 4th of Auguste in the 
morninge 5 of the Clok we wear theawart of a 




Popham and Gilbert 


Bay of 

Seal and 
Mud Islands 

Cape or head Land Lyeing in the Latitud of 

43 degrees and cam very near unto ytt. ytt ys 
very Low Land showinge Whytt Lyke sand but 
ytt ys Whytt Rocks and very stronge tides go- 
eth hear from the place we stopt att beinge in 

44 de & y 2 untill this Cape or head land ytt 
ys all broken Land & full of Illands & Large 
Sounds betwixt them & hear we found fyshe 
aboundance so large & great as I never Saw 
the Lyke Cods beffor nether any man in our 

After we paste this Cape or head Land the 
Land falleth awaye and Lyeth in norwest & 
by north into a greatt deep baye. We kept our 
course from this head Land West and Weste 
and by South 7 Leags and cam to thre Illands 
whear cominge near unto them we found on 
the Southest Syd of them a great Leadge of 
Rocks Lyeinge near a Leage into the Sea the 
which we perseavinge tackt our ship & the 
wynde being Large att northest Cleared our 
Selves of them kepinge still our course to the 
westward west & by South and west Southwest 
untill mydnyght. then after we hald in more 

Wensdaye being the 5th of Auguste from 
after mydnyght we hald in West norwest untill 
3 of the Clok afternoon of the Sam and then 
we Saw the Land aggain bearinge from us north 
weste & by north and ytt Risseth in this forme 


Penobscot River 


hear under, ten or 1 2 Leags from yo they ar 
three heigh mountains that Lye in upon the 
main Land near unto the ryver of penobskot 
in which ryver the bashabe makes his abod the 
cheeffe Comander of those parts & streatcheth 
unto the ryver of Sagadehock under his Comand 
yo shall see theise heigh mountains when yo 
shall not perseave the main Land under ytt they 
ar of shutch and exceedinge heygts : And note, 
that from the Cape or head Land befFor spoken 
of untill these heigh mountains we never Saw 
any Land except those three Illands also befFor 
mensyoned We stood in Right with these 
mountains untill the next daye. 

Thursdaye beinge the 6th of Auguste we 
stood in with this heigh Land untill 1 2 of the 
Cloke noon & then I found the shipe to be in 
43 d & Yq, by my observation from thence we 
Sett our Course & stood awaye dew weste & Saw 
three other Illands Lyenge together beinge Lo 
& flatt by the watter showinge whytt as yff ytt 
wear Sand but yttys whytt Rocks makinge show 
a far of allmoste Lyke unto Dover Cleeves. & 
these three Illands Lye dew est & west on of the 
other so we Cam faier by them and as we Cam 





Popham and Gilbert 

St. George 


to the Westward the heygh Land beffor spoken 
of shewed ytt selffe in this form as followith 

From hence we kept still our Course West 
& Weste by North towards three other Illands 
that we Sawe Lyenge from these Illands beffor 
spoken of 8 Leags and about ten of the Clok 
att nyght we recovered them & havinge Sent 
in our bott beffor nyght to vew ytt for that ytt 
was Calme & to Sound ytt & See whatt good 
ankoringe was under ytt we bor in with on 
of them the which as we cam in by we still 
sounded & founde very deepe watter 40 fetham 
hard abord of yt. So we stood in into a Coue 
In ytt & had 1 2 fetham watter & thear we an- 
kored untill the mornynge. And when the daye 
appeared We Saw we weare environed Round 
about with Illands yo myght have told neare 
thirty Illands round about us from abord our 
shipe this Illand we Call St. Georges Illand for 
that we hear found a Crosse Sett up the which 
we Suposse was Sett up by George Wayman. 

Fry daye beinge the 7th of Auguste we wayed 
our Ankor whereby to bringe our shipe in mor 
better Safty how Soever the wynd should hap- 
pen to blow and about ten of the Cloke in the 
mornynge as we weare standinge of a Lyttell 



from the Xlland we descried a saill standinge in 
towards this I Hand & we presently mad towards 
her & found ytt to be the gyfte our Consort So 
beinge all Joye full of our happy meetinge we 
both stood in again for the Illand we ryd under 
beffor & theare anckored both together. 

This night followinge about myd nyght 
Capt. Gilbert caussed his ships bott to be maned 
& took to hemselffe 1 3 other my Selffe beinge 
on. beinge 1 4 persons in all & tooke the Indyan 
skidwarres with us the weather beinge faier 
6c the wynd Calme we rowed to the Weste in 
amongst many gallant Illands and found the 
ryver of pemaquyd to be but 4 Leags weste 
from the Illand we Call St. Georges whear our 
ships remained still att anckor. hear we Landed 
in a Lyttell Cove by skyd warres Direction & 
marched ouer a necke of the Land near three 
mills So the Indyan skidwarres brought us to 
the Salvages housses whear they did inhabitt 
although much against his will for that he told 
us that they wear all r.emoued & gon from the 
place they wear wont to inhabitt. but we an- 
swered hem again that we wold nott retorne 
backe untill shutch time as we had spoken with 
Som of them. At Length he brought us whear 
they did inhabytt whear we found near a hun- 
dreth of them men wemen and Children. 
And the CheefFe Comander of them ys Naha- 
nada att our fryste Seight of them uppon a 



See page 151. 



Popham and Gilbert 

Rev. Richard 

howlinge or Cry that they mad they all pre- 
sently Isued forth towards us with thear bowes 
& arrows & we presently mad a stand & Suf- 
fered them to Com near unto us then our 
Indyan skidwarres spoke unto them in thear 
language showinge them what we wear which 
when nahanada thear Comander perseaved what 
we wear he Caussed them all to laye assyd thear 
bowes & arrowes and cam unto us and im- 
brassed us & we did the lyke to them aggain. 
So we remained with them near to howers 
& wear in thear housses. Then we tooke our 
Leave of them & retorned with our Indyan skid- 
warres with us towards our ships the 8 th Daye 
of August being Satterdaye in the after noon. 

Sondaye being the 9th of Auguste in the 
morninge the most part of our holl company 
of both our shipes Landed on this Illand the 
which we call St. Georges Illand whear the 
Crosse standeth and thear we heard a Sermon 
delyvred unto us by our preacher gyvinge god 
thanks for our happy metinge & Saffe aryvall 
into the Contry & So retorned abord aggain. 

Mundaye beinge the Xth of Auguste early 
in the morninge Capt. popham in his shallope 
with thirty others & Capt. Gilbert in his ships 
bott with twenty others Acompanede Depted 
from thear shipes & sailled towards the ryver 
of pemaquyd & Caryed with us the Indyan 
skidwarres and Cam to the ryver ryght befFore 



thear housses whear they no Sooner espyed us 
but presently Nahanada with all his Indians 
with thear bowes and arrows in thear hands 
Cam forth upon the Sands — So we Caussed 
skidwarres to speak unto hem & we our Selves 
spok unto hem in Inglyshe givinge hem to 
understand our Cominge tended to no yvell 
towards hem Selffe nor any of his peopell. he 
told us again he wold nott thatt all our peopell 
should Land. So beccause we woold in no sort 
offend them, hearuppon Som ten or twelffe of 
the Cheeff gent Landed & had Some parle 
together & then afterward they wear well con- 
tented that all should Land So all landed we 
ussinge them with all the kindnesse that pos- 
sibell we Could, nevertheless after an hower 
or to they all Soddainly withdrew them Selves 
from us into the woods & Lefte us we perseav- 
inge this presently imbarked our Selves all 
except skidwarres who was nott Desyerous to 
retorn with us. We Seeinge this woold in no 
Sort proffer any Violence unto hem by drawing 
hem perfforce Suffered hem to remain and staye 
behinde us. he promyssinge to retorn unto us 
the next Daye followinge but he heald not his 
promysse So we imbarked our Selves and went 
unto the other Syd of the ryver & thear re- 
mained uppon the shore the nyght followinge. 
Tuesdaye beinge the xjth of Auguste we 
retorned and cam to our ships whear they still 


i6 S 

1 66 

Popham and Gilbert 



remained att ankor under the Illand we call 
St. Georges. 

Wensdaye being the xijth of Auguste we 
wayed our anckors and Sett our saills to go for 
the ryver of Sagadehock we kept our Course 
from thence dew Weste until 1 2 of the Clok 
mydnyght of the Sam then we stroke our Saills 
& layed a hull untill the mornynge Doutinge 
for to over shoot ytt. 

Thursdaye in the mornynge breacke of the 
daye beinge the xiijth of Auguste the Illand of 
Sutquin bore north of us nott past half? a leage 
from us and ytt rysseth in this form hear un- 
der followinge the which Illand Lyeth ryght 

in this form being South 
from ytt, 

being est & weste from the 
Illand of Sutqin ytt maketh 
in this form. 

beffore the mouth of the ryver of Sagadehocke 
South from ytt near 2 Leags but we did not 
make ytt to be Sutquin so we Sett our saills & 
stood to the westward for to Seeke ytt 2 Leags 
farther & nott fyndinge the ryver of Sagade- 
hocke we knew that we had overshott the place 
then we wold have retorned but Could nott & 
the nyght in hand the gifte Sent in her shallop 
& mad ytt & went into the ryver this nyght but 


Seguin Island 


we wear constrained to remain att Sea all this 
nyght and about mydnight thear arose a great 
storme & tempest uppon us the which putt us in 
great daunger and hassard of castinge awaye of 
our ship & our Lyves by reason we wear so near 
the shore the wynd blew very hard att South 
right in uppon the shore so that by no means 
we could nott gett of hear we sought all means 
& did what possybell was to be don for that our 
Lyves depended on ytt hear we plyed ytt with 
our ship of & on all the nyght often times espye- 
inge many soonken rocks & breatches hard by 
us enforsynge us to put our ship about & stand 
from them bearinge saill when ytt was mor fyt- 
ter to have taken ytt in but that ytt stood uppon 
our Lyves to do ytt & our bott Soonk att our 
stern yet woold we nott cut her from us in hope 
of the appearinge of the daye thus we Contyn- 
ued untill the daye cam then we perseaved our 
Selves to be hard abord the Lee shore & no waye 
to escape ytt but by Seekinge the Shore then 
we espyed 2 Lyttell Illands Lyeinge under our 
lee So we bore up the healme & steerd in our 
shipe in betwyxt them whear the Lord be praised 
for ytt we found good and saufFe ankkoringe 
& thear anckored the storme still contynuinge 
untill the next daye followynge. 

Frydaye beinge the xiiijth of August that we 
anckored under these Illands thear we repaired 
our bott being very muche torren & spoilled 


Cape Small 


Popham and Gilbert 

then after we Landed on this Illand & found 4 
salvages & an old woman this Illand ys full of 
pyne trees & ocke and abundance of whorts of 
fower Sorts of them. 

Satterdaye beinge the 1 5 th of Auguste the 
storme ended and the wind Cam faier for us to 
go for Sagadehock so we wayed our anckors 
& Sett Saill & stood to the estward & cam 
to the Illand Sutquin which was 2 Leags from 
those Illands we rod att anker beffor, & hear 
we anckored under the Illand of Sutqin in the 
estersyd of ytt for that the wynd was of the 
shore that wee could no gett into the ryver of 
Sagadehock & hear Capt. pophams ships bott 
cam abord of us & gave us xx freshe Cods 
that they had taken beinge Sent out a fyshinge. 

Sondaye beinge the 1 6th of Auguste Capt. 
popham Sent his Shallop unto us for to healp us 
in So we wayed our anckors & beinge Calme 
we towed in our ship & Cam into the Ryver of 
Sagadehocke and anckored by the gyfts Syd 
about xj of the Cloke the Sam daye. 

Mundaye beinge the 17th Auguste Capt. 
popham in his shallop with 30 others & Capt. 
Gilbert in his shipes bott accompaned with 
18 other persons departed early in the morn- 
inge from thear ships & sailled up the Ryver 
of Sagadehock for to vew the Ryver & allso to 
See whear they myght fynd the most Conven- 
yent place for thear plantation my SelfFe beinge 


Kenebeck River 


with Capt. Gilbert. So we Sailled up into this 
ryver near 1 4 Leags and found ytt to be a most 
gallant ryver very brod & of a good depth we 
never had Lesse Watter then 3 fetham when we 
had Least & abundance of greatt fyshe in ytt 
Leaping aboue the Watter on eatch Syd of us 
as we Sailled. So the nyght aprochinge after 
a whill we had refreshed our Selves uppon the 
shore about 9 of the Cloke we sett backward 
to retorn & Cam abourd our shipes the next 
day followinge about 2 of the Clok in the after- 
noon We fynd this ryver to be very pleasant 
with many goodly Illands in ytt & to be both 
Large & deepe Watter havinge many branches 
in ytt that which we tooke bendeth ytt Selffe 
towards the northest. 

Tuesday e beinge the 1 8 th after our retorn we 
all went to the shore & thear mad Choies of a 
place for our plantation which ys at the very 
mouth or entry of the Ryver of Sagadehocke 
on the West Syd of the Ryver beinge almoste 
an Illand of a good bygness whylst we wear 
uppon the shore thear Cam in three Cannoos 
by us but they wold not Com near us but rowed 
up the Ryver & so past away. 

Wensday beinge the 19th Auguste we all 
went to the shore whear we mad Choise for our 
plantation and thear we had a Sermon delyvred 
unto us by our precher and after the Sermon 
our pattent was red with the orders & Lawes 





Popham and Gilbert 

Pejepscot or 

thearin prescrybed & then we retorned abord 
our ships again. 

Thursdaye beinge the 20th of Auguste all 
our Companyes Landed & thear began to for- 
tefye our presedent Capt popham Sett the 
fryst spytt of ground unto ytt and after hem 
all the rest followed & Labored hard in the 
trenches about ytt. 

Frydaye the 2Jth of Auguste all hands La- 
bored hard about the fort Som in the trentch 
Som for fagetts & our ship Carpenters about the 
buildinge of a small penis or shallop. 

Satterdaye the 22th Auguste Capt. popham 
early in the morninge departed in his shallop 
to go for the ryver of pashipskoke thear they 
had parle with the Salvages again who delyvred 
unto them that they had ben att wars with Sa- 
sanoa & had slain his Soone in fyght skidwares 
and Dehanada wear in this fyght. 

Sondaye the 23 th our presedent Capt. pop- 
ham retorned unto us from the ryver of pa- 

The 24th all Labored about the fort. 

Tuesdaye the 25th Capt. Gilbert imbarked 
hem Selffe with 15 other with hem to go to 
the Westward uppon Som Discouery but the 
Wynd was contrary & forsed hem backe again 
the Sam daye. 

The 26th & 27th all Labored hard about the 


Casco Bay 

Fry day e the 28 th Capt. Gilbert with 14 oth- 
ers my Selffe beinge on Imbarked hem to go 
to the westward again So the wynd Servinge 
we Sailled by many gallant Illands & towards 
nyght the winde Cam Contrary against us So 
that we wear Constrained to remain that nyght 
under the head Land called Semeamis whear 
we found the Land to be most fertill the trees 
growinge thear doth exceed for goodnesse & 
Length being the most part of them ocke & 
wallnutt growinge a greatt space assoonder on 
from the other as our parks in Ingland and no 
thickett growinge under them hear wee also 
found a gallant place to fortefye whom Nattuer 
ytt Selffe hath already framed without the hand 
of man with a runynge stream of watter hard 
adjoyninge under the foott of ytt. 

Satterdaye the 29th Auguste early in the 
mornynge we departed from thence & rowed 
to the westward for that the wind was againste 
us but the wynd blew so hard that forsed us to 
remain under an Illand 2 Leags from the place 
we remayned the night beffore whilst we re- 
mayned under this Illand thear passed to Can- 
noos by us but they wold nott Com neare us 
after mydnyght we put from this Illand in hope 
to have gotten the place we dessyered but the 
wind arose and blew so hard at Southwest Con- 
trary for us that forsed us to retorn. 

Sondaye beinge the 30th Auguste retornynge 





Richmond 's 


Popham and Gilbert 


beffore the wynd we sailled by many goodly 
Illands for betwixt this head Land called Se- 
meamis & the ryver of Sagadehock ys a great 
baye in the which Lyeth So many Illands & 
so thicke & neare together that yo Cannott 
well desern to Nomber them yet may yo go in 
betwixt them in a good ship for yo shall have 
never Lesse Watter the 8 fethams these Illands 
ar all overgrowen with woods very thicke as 
ocks wallnut pyne trees & many other things 
growinge as Sarsaperilla hassell nuts & whorts 
in aboundance So this day we retorned to our 
fort att Sagadehock. 

Munday being the Last of Auguste nothinge 
hapened but all Labored for the buildinge of 
the fort & for the storhouse to reseave our 

Tuesday the first of September thear Cam a 
Canooa unto us in the which was 2 greatt ket- 
tells of brasse Som of our Company did parle 
with them but they did rest very doutfull of us 
& wold nott Suffer mor then on att a tyme to 
Com near unto them So he departed The Sec- 
ond daye third & 4th nothinge hapened worth 
the wryttinge but that eatch man did his beste 
endevour for the buildinge of the fort. 

Satterdaye beinge the 5 th of September thear 
Cam into the entraunce of the ryver of Sagade- 
hocke nine Canoos in the which was Dehanada 
& skidwarres with many others in the wholl 


Kenebeck River 


near fortye persons men women & Children 
they Cam & parled with us & we aggain ussed 
them in all frindly maner We Could & gave 
them vyttaills for to eatt So skidwarres & on 
more of them stayed with us untill nyght the 
rest of them withdrew them in thear Canooas to 
the farther Syd of the ryver. but when nyght 
Cam for that skidwares woold needs go to the 
rest of his Company Capt. Gilbert acompaned 
with James Davis & Capt. ellis best took them 
into our bott & Caryed them to thear Com- 
pany on the farther syd the ryver & thear re- 
mained amongst them all the nyght & early in 
the mornynge the Sallvages departed in thear 
Canooas for the ryver of pemaquid promys- 
singe Capt. Gilbert to acompany hem in thear 
Canooas to the ryver of penobskott whear the 
bashabe remayneth. 

The 6th nothinge happened the 7th our 
ship the Mary & John began to discharge her 

Tuesday beinge the 8th September Capt. 
Gilbert acompaned with xxij others my Selffe 
beinge on of them departed from the fort to go 
for the ryver of penobskott takinge with hem 
divers Sorts of Merchandise for to trad with 
the Bashabe who ys the Cheeffe Comander of 
those parts but the wind was Contrary againste 
hem so that he could nott Com to dehanada & 
skidwares at the time apointed for ytt was the 



Popham and Gilbert 

xjth daye beffor he Could gett to the ryver of 
pemaquid Whear they do make thear abbod. 

Fry daye beinge the xjth in the mornynge 
early we Cam into the ryver of pemaquyd thear 
to Call nahanada & skidwarres as we had pro- 
myste them but beinge thear aryved we found 
no Lyvinge Creatuer they all wear gon from 
thence the which we perseavinge presently de- 
parted towards the ryver of penobskott Sail- 
linge all this daye & the xijth & xiijth the Lyke 
yett by no means Could we fynd ytt So our 
vitall beinge spent we hasted to retorn So the 
wynd Cam faier for us & we Sailled all the 1 4th 
& 1 5th dayes in retornynge the Wind blowinge 
very hard att north & this mornynge the 1 5 th 
daye we pseaved a blassing star in the northest 
of vs. 

The 1 6th 17th 18th 19th 20th 2Jth 22th no- 
thinge hapened but all Labored hard about the 
fort & the store house for to Land our wvttaills. 

The 23th beinge Wensdaye Capt. Gilbert 
acompaned with 1 9 others my Selffe on of them 
departed from the fort to go for the head of the 
ryver of Sagadehock we Sailled all this daye 
So did we the Lyke the 24th untill the evenynge 
then we Landed thear to remain that Nyght 
hear we found a gallant Champion Land & ex- 
ceedinge fertill So hear we remayned all nyght. 

The 25 th beinge fry daye early in the morn- 
ynge we departed from hence & sailled up the 


Kenebeck River 


ryver about eyght Leags farther untill we Cam 
unto an Illand beinge Lo Land & flatt att this 
Illand ys a great down Fall of watter the which 
runeth by both Sydes of this Illand very swyfte 
& shallow in this Illand we found greatt store 
of grapes exceedinge good and sweett of to 
Sorts both red butt the on of them ys a mervel- 
lous deepe red. by both the syds of this ryver 
the grapes grow in aboundance & allso very 
good Hoppes & also Chebolls & garleck. and 
for the goodnesse of the Land ytt doth so far 
abound that I Cannott allmost expresse the Sam 
hear we all went ashore & with a stronge Rope 
made fast to our bott & on man in her to gyde 
her aggainst the Swyfte stream we pluckt her 
up throwe ytt perforce after we had past this 
down-Fall we all went into our bott again & 
rowed near a Leage farther up into the ryver 
& nyght beinge att hand we hear stayed all 
nyght. & in the fryst of the night about ten 
of the Cloke thear Cam on the farther syd of 
the ryver sartain Salvages Calling unto us in 
broken inglyshe we answered them aggain So 
for this time they departed. 

The 26th beinge Satterdaye thear Cam a 
Canooa unto us & in hear fower salvages those 
that had spoken unto us in the nyght berFore 
his name that Came unto us ys Sabenoa he 
macks himselfFe unto us to be Lord of the ryver 
of Sagadehock. 


Wild onion 

Hmrp Hudson 




Henry Hudson, having tried in vain to find a sea 
route to China through the ice fields which stretched 
across his path all the way from Greenland to Spitz- 
bergen or Willoughby Land, transferred his services in 
the winter of 1609 from the English Muscovy Company 
to the Dutch East India Company. He started to make 
a further trial of the Northeast passage, but while off 
the coast of Novaya Zemlya, his crews refused to go 
further in that direction. Abandoned by his consort, 
Hudson persuaded the men on his own ship, the Half 
Moon, to cross the Atlantic and try their luck in Amer- 
ica. They made land on the Nova Scotia coast, and 
after beating about over the fishing banks and looking 
at the shores of Maine and southeastern Massachusetts, 
went on to another landfall in the latitude of Virginia. 
Turning northward, they sailed up the coast and into 
the river which has since borne their leader s name. 

The surviving log-book or journal of Hudson s third 
voyage was kept by Robert Juet, who had been his mate 
during the second voyage, and who took a leading part 
in the mutiny which ended when the leader was turned 
adrift in a small boat in Hudson s Bay in 1611. It was 
printed in the third volume of " Purchas his Pilgrimes," 
London, 1625. 


of Master Henry Hudson, 
Written by Robert Juet, 
of Lime-House. 

THE twelfth of July was very foggie, 
we stood our course all the morning 
till eleven of the clocke ; at which 
time we had sight of land, which is low white 
sandie ground, right on head off us ; and had 
ten fathoms. Then we tackt to the southward, 
and stood off foure glasses : then we tackt to 
the land againe, thinking to have rode under it, 
and as we came neere it, the fog was so thicke 
that we could not see; so wee stood off againe. 
From mid-night to two of the clocke, we came 
sounding in twelve, thirteene, and fourteene 
fathoms off the shoare. At foure of the clocke, 
we had 20 fathoms. At eight of the clocke at 
night, 30 fathoms. At twelve of the clocke, 
65 fathoms, and but little winde, for it deeped 
apace, but the neerer the shoare the fairer 

The thirteenth, faire sun-shining weather, 
from eight of the clocke in the fore-noone all 
day after, but in the morning it was foggie. 





Henry Hudson 

Then at eight of the clocke we cast about for 
the shoare, but could not see it ; the wind be- 
ing at south by our true compasse, wee steered 
west and by north. At noone we observed, and 
found our height to bee 43 degrees, 25 min- 
utes; so we steered away west and by north all 
the afternoone. At foure of the clocke in the 
afternoone we sounded, and had five and thir- 
tie fathoms. And at sixe of the clocke wee had 
sight of the land, and saw two sayles on head 
off us. The land by the waters side is low land, 
and white sandie bankes rising, full of little 
hils. Our soundings were 35, 33, 30, 28, 32, 
37, 33, and 32 fathoms. 

The fourteenth, full of mysts flying and 
vading, the wind betweene south and south- 
west ; we steered away west north-west, and 
north-west and by west. Our soundings were 
29, 25, 24, 25, 22, 25, 27, 30, 28, 30, 35, 43, 
50, 70, 90, 70, 64, 86, 100 fathoms, and no 

The fifteenth, very mystie, the winde vary- 
ing betweene south and south-west ; wee steered 
west and by north, and west north-west. In the 
morning we sounded, and had one hundred 
fathoms, till foure of the clocke in the after- 
noone. Then we sounded againe, and had sev- 
entie-five fathoms. Then in two glasses running, 
which was not above two English miles, we 
sounded and had sixtie fathoms, and it shoalded 

Penobscot Ba 

r y 


a great pace untill we came to twentie fathoms. 
Then we made account we were neere the 
islands that lie off the shoare. So we came to 
an anchor, the sea being very smooth and little 
wind, at nine of the clocke at night. After sup- 
per we tryed for fish, and I caught fifteene cods, 
some the greatest that I have seene, and so we 
rode all night. 

The sixteenth, in the morning, it cleered up, 
and we had sight of five islands lying north, and 
north and by west from us, two leagues. Then 
wee made ready to set sayle, but the myst came 
so thicke that we durst not enter in among 

The seventeenth, was all mystie, so that we 
could not get into the harbour. At ten of the 
clocke two boats came off to us, with sixe of 
the savages of the countrey, seeming glad of 
our comming. We gave them trifles, and they 
eate and dranke with us ; and told us that there 
were gold, silver and copper mynes hard by 
us; and that the French-men doe trade with 
them ; which is very likely, for one of them 
spake some words of French. So wee rode still 
all day and all night, the weather continuing 

The eighteenth, faire weather, wee went 
into a very good harbour, and rode hard by the 
shoare in foure fathoms water. The river run- 
neth up a great way, but there is but two fath- 




Henry Hudson 

oms hard by us. We went on shoare and cut 
us a fore mast ; then at noone we came aboord 
againe, and found the height of the place to 
bee in 44 degrees, 1 minute, and the sunne to 
fall at a south south-west sunne. We mended 
our sayles, and fell to make our fore-mast. The 
harbour lyeth south and north, a mile in where 
we rode. 

The nineteenth, we had faire sun-shining 
weather, we rode still. In the after-noone wee 
went with our boate to looke for fresh water, 
and found some ; and found a shoald with many 
lobsters on it, and caught one and thirtie. The 
people coming aboord, shewed us great friend- 
ship, but we could not trust them. The twen- 
tieth, faire sunne-shining weather, the winde 
at south-west. In the morning, our scute went 
out to catch fresh fish halfe an houre before 
day, and returned in two houres, bringing seven 
and twentie great coddes, with two hookes and 
lines. In the afternoone wee went for more 
lobsters and caught fortie, and returned aboord. 
Then wee espied two French shallops full of the 
country people come into the harbour, but they 
offered us no wrong, seeing we stood upon our 
guard. They brought many beaver skinnes and 
other fine furres, which they would have changed 
for redde gownes. For the French trade with 
them for red cassocks, knives, hatchets, copper, 
kettles, trevits, beades, and other trifles. 


Penobscot Bay 

i8 3 

The one and twentieth, all mystie, the wind 
easterly, wee rode still and did nothing, but 
about our mast. The two and twentieth, fair 
sun-shining weather, the winde all northerly, 
we rode still all the day. In the after-noone our 
scute went to catch more lobsters, and brought 
with them nine and fiftie. The night was cleere 

The three and twentieth, faire sun shining 
weather and very hot. At eleven of the clocke 
our fore mast was finished, and wee brought it 
aboord, and set it into the step, and in the after- 
noone we rigged it. This night we had some 
little myst and rayne. 

The foure and twentieth, very hot weather, 
the winde at south out of the sea. The fore- 
part of the day wee brought to our sayles. In 
the morning our scute went to take fish, and 
in two houres they brought with them twentie 
great coddes and a great holibut; the night 
was faire also. We kept good watch for fear 
of being betrayed by the people, and perceived 
where they layd their shallops. 

The five and twentieth, very faire weather 
and hot. In the morning wee manned our scute 
with foure muskets and sixe men, and tooke 
one of their shallops and brought it aboord. 
Then we manned our boat and scute with twelve 
men and muskets, and two stone pieces or mur- 
derers, and drave the savages from their houses, 


1 84 

Henry Hudson 

and tooke the spoyle of them, as they would 
have done of us. Then wee set sayle, and came 
downe to the harbours mouth, and rode there 
all night, because the winde blew right in, and 
the night grew mystie with much rayne till 
mid-night. Then it fell calme, and the wind 
came off the land at west north-west, and it 
began to cleere. The compasse varyed ten de- 
grees north-west. 

The sixe and twentieth, faire and cleere 
sunne-shining weather. At five of the clocke 
in the morning, the winde being off the shoare 
at north north-west, we set sayle and came to 
sea, and by noone we counted our ship had 
gone fourteene leagues south-west. In the af- 
ternoone, the winde shifted variably betweene 
west south-west and north-west. At noone I 
found the height to bee 43 degrees, 56 min- 
utes. This evening being very faire weather, 
wee observed the variation of our compasse at 
the sunnes going downe, and found it to bee 1 o 
degrees from the north to the westward. 

The seven and twentieth, faire sun-shin- 
ing weather, the winde shifting betweene the 
south-west and west and by north, a stifFe gale ; 
we stood to the southward all day, and made 
our way south and by west, seven and twentie 
leagues. At noone, our height was 42 degrees, 
50 minutes. At foure of the clocke in the 
after-noone, wee cast about to the north-ward. 


The Fishing Banks 


At eight of the clocke, we tooke in our top- 
sayles and our fore-bonnet, and went with a 
short sayle all night. 

The eight and twentieth, very thicke and 
mystie, and a stiffe gale of wind, varying be- 
tweene south south-west and south-west and by 
west ; we made our way north-west and by west, 
seven and twentie leagues ; wee sounded many 
times and could get no ground. At five of the 
clocke we cast about to the southward, the wind 
at south-west and by west. At which time we 
sounded, and had ground at seventie-five fath- 
oms. At eight, wee had sixtie-five fathoms. 
At ten, sixtie. At twelve of the clocke at mid- 
night, fiftie-sixe fathoms, gray sand. 

The compasse varyed 6 degrees the north 
point to the west. 

The nine and twentieth, faire weather, we 
stood to the southward, and made our way south 
and by west a point south, eighteene leagues. 
At noone we found our height to be 42 degrees 
56 minutes; wee sounded oft and had these, 
60, 64, 65, 67, 65, 65, 70, and 75 fathoms. 
At night wee tryed the variation of our com- 
passe by the setting of the sunne, and found 
that it went downe 37 degrees to the northward 
of the west, and should have gone downe but 
3 1 degrees. The compasse varyed 5 and a halfe 

The thirtieth, very hot, all the fore part of 



Henry Hudson 

the day calme, the wind at south south-east; 
wee steered away west south-west and sounded 
many times, and could find no ground at one 
hundred and seventie fathomes. We found a 
great current and many over-falls. Our current 
had deceived us. For at noone we found our 
height to be 41 degrees 34 minutes. And the 
current had heaved us to the southward foure- 
teene leagues. At eight of the clocke at night 
I sounded, and had ground in fiftie-two fath- 
omes. In the end of the mid-night watch wee 
had fiftie-three fathomes. This last observation 
is not to be trusted. 

The one and thirtieth, very thicke and mys- 
tie all day, untill tenne of the clocke. At night 
the wind came to the south, and south-west 
and south. We made our way west north-west 
nineteene leagues. Wee sounded many times, 
and had difference of soundings, sometimes 
little stones, and sometimes grosse gray sand, 
fiftie-sixe, fiftie-foure, fortie-eight, fortie-seven, 
fortie-foure, fortie-sixe, fiftie fathoms ; and at 
eight of the clocke at night it fell calme, and 
we had fiftie fathomes. And at ten of the clocke 
we heard a great rut, like the rut of the shoare. 
Then I sounded and found the former depth ; 
and mistrusting a current, seeing it so still that 
the ship made no way, I let the lead lie on the 
ground, and found a tide set to the south-west, 
and south-west and by west, so fast, that I could 


The Fishing Banks 


hardly vere the line so fast, and presently came 
an hurling current, or tyde with over-fals, which 
cast our ship round ; and the lead was so fast 
in the ground that I feared the lines breaking, 
and we had no more but that. At midnight I 
sounded againe, and we had seventie-five fath- 
omes ; and the strong streame had left us. 

The first of August, all the fore part of the 
day was mystie, and at noone it cleered up. 
We found that our height was 41 degrees 45 
minutes, and we had gone nineteene leagues. 
The after-noon was reasonable cleere. We 
found a rustling tide or current with many over- 
fals to continue still, and our water to change 
colour, and our sea to bee very deepe, for wee 
found no ground in one hundred fathomes. The 
night was cleere, and the winde came to the 
north, and north north-east, we steered west. 

The second, very faire weather and hot : 
from the morning till noone we had a gale of 
wind, but in the after-noone little wind. At 
noone I sounded and had one hundred and 
ten fathomes; and our height was 41 degrees 
56 minutes. And wee had runne four and t wen- 
tie leagues and an halfe. At the sun-setting 
we observed the variation of the compasse, and 
found that it was come to his true place. At 
eight of the clocke the gale increased, so wee 
ranne sixe leagues that watch, and had a very 
faire and cleere night. 




Henry Hudson 


The third, very hot weather. In the morn- 
ing we had sight of the land, and steered in 
with it, thinking to go to the northward of it. 
So we sent our shallop with five men to sound 
in by the shore : and they found it deepe five 
fathomes within bow-shot of the shoare ; and 
they went on land, and found goodly grapes and 
rose trees, and brought them aboord with them, 
at five of the clocke in the eevening. We had 
seven and twentie fathomes within two miles 
of the shoare; and we found a floud come from 
the south-east, and an ebbe from the northwest, 
with a very strong streame, and a great hurling 
and noyses. At eight of the clocke at night the 
wind began to blow a fresh gale, and contin- 
ued all night but variable. Our sounding that 
wee had to the land was one hundred, eightie, 
seventie-foure, fiftie-two, fortie-sixe, twentie- 
nine, twentie-seven, twentie-foure, nineteene, 
seventeene, sometimes oze, and sometimes gray 

The fourth, was very hot : we stood to the 
north-west two watches, and one south in for 
the land, and came to an anchor at the norther 
end of the headland, and heard the voyce of 
men call. Then we sent our boat on shoare, 
thinking they had beene some Christians left on 
the land : but wee found them to bee savages, 
which seemed very glad of our comming. So 
wee brought one aboord with us, and gave him 


Cape Cod 

meate, and he did eate and drinke with us. 
Our master gave him three or foure glasse but- 
tons, and sent him on land with our shallop 
againe. And at our boats comming from the 
shoare he leapt and danced, and held up his 
hands, and pointed us to a river on the other 
side : for we had made signes that we came to 
fish there. The bodie of this headland lyeth 
in 41 degrees 45 minutes. We set sayle againe 
after dinner, thinking to have got to the west- 
ward of this headland, but could not ; so we 
beare up to the southward of it, and made a 
south-east way ; and the souther point did beare 
west at eight of the clocke at night. Our 
soundings about the easter and norther part of 
this headland, a league from the shoare are 
these: at the easterside thirtie, twentie-seven, 
twentie-seven,twentie-foure, twen tie-five, twen- 
tie. The north-east point 17 degrees 18 min- 
utes, and so deeper. The north end of this 
headland, hard by the shoare thirtie fathomes : 
and three leagues offnorth north-west, one hun- 
dred fathomes. At the south-east part a league 
off, fifteene, sixteene, and seventeene fathomes. 
The people have greene tabacco and pipes, the 
boles whereof are made of earth and the pipes 
of red copper. The land is very sweet. 

The fift, all mystie. At eight of the clocke 
in the morning wee tact about to the west- 
ward, and stood in till foure of the clocke in 




Henry Hudson 

the after-noone; at which time it cleered, and 
wee had sight of the head-land againe five 
leagues from us. The souther point of it did 
beare west off us : and we sounded many times, 
and had no ground. And at foure of the clocke 
we cast about, and at our staying wee had 
seventie fathomes. Wee steered away south 
and south by east all night, and could get no 
ground at seventie and eightie fathomes. For 
wee feared a great riffe that lyeth off the land, 
and steered away south and by east. 

The sixth, faire weather, but many times 
mysting. Wee steered away south south-east, 
till eight of the clocke in the morning ; then 
it cleered a little, and we cast about to the 
westward. Then we sounded and had thirtie 
fathomes, grosse sand, and were come to the 
riffe. Then wee kept our lead, and had quicke 
shoalding from thirtie, twentie-nine, twentie- 
seven, twentie-foure, twentie-two, twentie and 
an halfe, twentie, twentie, nineteene, nine- 
teene, nineteene, eighteene, eighteene, seven- 
teene ; and so deeping againe as proportionally 
as it shoalded. For we steered south and south- 
east till we came to twentie-sixe fathomes. 
Then we steered south-west, for so the tyde 
doth set. By and by, it being calme, we tryed 
by our lead ; for you shall have sixteene or sev- 
enteene fathomes, and the next cast but seven 
or six fathomes. And farther to the westward 



Cape Cod 


you shall have foure and five foot water, and see 
rockes under you and you shall see the land 
in the top. Upon this riffe we had an obser- 
vation, and found that it lyeth in 40 degrees, 
10 minutes. And this is that headland which 
Captaine Bartholomew Gosnold discovered in 
the yeere 1602, and called Cape Cod, because 
of the store of cod-fish that hee found there- 
about. So we steered south-west three leagues, 
and had twentie and twentie-foure fathomes. 
Then we steered west two glasses, halfe a league, 
and came to fifteene fathomes. Then we steered 
off south-east foure glasses, but could not get 
deepe water ; for there the tyde of ebbe laid us 
on ; and the streame did hurle so, that it laid us 
so neere the breach of a shoald that wee were 
forced to anchor. So at seven of the clocke at 
night wee were at an anchor in tenne fathomes : 
and I give God most heartie thankes, the least 
water wee had was seven fathomes and an halfe. 
We rode still all night, and at a still water I 
sounded so farre round about our ship as we 
could see a light ; and had no lesse then eight, 
nine, ten, and eleven fathomes : the myst con- 
tinued being very thicke. 

The seventh, faire weather and hot, but mys- 
tic Wee rode still hoping it would cleere, but 
on the floud it fell calme and thicke. So we 
rode still all day and all night. The floud com- 
meth from the south-west, and riseth not above 



Henry Hudson 

one fathome and an halfe in nepe streames. 
Toward night it cleered, and I went with our 
shallop and sounded, and found no lesse water 
then eight fathomes to the south-east off us ; but 
we saw to the north-west off us great breaches. 
The eight, faire and cleere weather. In the 
morning, by sixe of the clocke, at slake water, 
wee weighed, the wind at north-east, and set 
our fore-say le and mayne top-say le, and got a 
mile over the flats. Then the tyde of ebbe came, 
so we anchored againe till the floud came. 
Then we set sayle againe, and by the great mer- 
cie of God wee got cleere off them by one of 
the clocke this afternoone. And wee had sight 
of the land from the west north-west to the 
north north-west. So we steered away south 
south-east all night, and had ground untill the 
middle of the third watch. Then we had for- 
tie-five fathomes, white sand and little stones. 
So all our soundings are twentie, twentie, twen- 
tie-two, twentie-seven, thirtie-two, fortie-three, 
fortie-three, fortie-five. Then no ground in 
seventie fathomes. 

>amutl &rgall 



Samuel Argall first visited Virginia in 1609, when 
he demonstrated the possibility of making the voyage 
from England by a more direct route than that by 
way of the Axores and the West Indies. For the next 
decade Argall was constantly associated with the affairs 
of the Jamestown colony. In 1610 he reached the set- 
tlement with supplies and recruits from England barely 
in time to prevent its abandonment. As the provisions 
which he brought afforded only a temporary relief, he 
started off at once for the Bermudas. His experiences 
during the voyage are told in his journal, which is here 
reprinted from the fourth volume of " Purchas his Pil- 
grimes" printed at London in 1625. 

Argall made two more voyages to the New England 
coast in 16 13, first to investigate the reports that the 
French were making settlements on Mount Desert and 
at the mouth of the St. Croix River, and then to com- 
plete the destruction of the houses and fortifications begun 
by the French. For reasons of policy, it may be, no de- 
tailed accounts of these later voyages appear to have been 


Captaine Samvel Argal, 
from lames Towne in Vir- 
ginia, to seek the He of 
Bermuda, and missing the 
same, his putting ouer to- 
ward Sagadahoc and Cape 
Cod, and so backe againe 
to lames Towne, begun the 
nineteenth of lune, 1610. 

bound for the He of Bermuda with two 
Pinnaces, the one called the Patience, 
wherein he sailed himselfe, set saile from lames 
Towne in Virginia, the ninteenth of lune, 1 6 1 o. 
The two and twentieth at noone we came to 
an anchor at Cape Henry, to take more balast. 
The weather proued very wet: so wee road 
vnder the Cape till two of the clocke, the 
three and twentieth in the morning. Then we 


J 95 




Samuel Argall 


weighed and stood off to Sea, the wind at 
South-west. And till eight of the clocke at 
night it was all Southerly, and then that shifted 
to South-west. The Cape then bearing West, 
about eight leagues off. Then wee stirred away 
South-east. The foure and twentieth, at noone 
I obserued the Sunne, and found my selfe to 
bee in thirtie sixe degrees, fortie seuen min- 
utes, about twentie leagues off from the Land. 
From the foure and twentieth at noone, to the 
fiue and twentieth at noone, sixe leagues East, 
the wind Southerly, but for the most part it 
was calme. From the fiue and twentieth at 
noone, to the sixe and twentieth about sixe of 
the clocke in the morning, the winde was all 
Southerly, and but little. And then it be- 
ganne to blow a fresh gale at West South-west. 
So by noone I had sailed fourteene leagues 
East, South-east pricked. From the sixe and 
twentieth at noone, to the seuen and twenti- 
eth at noone, twentie leagues East, South-east. 
The wind shifting from the West, South-west 
Southerly, and so to the East, and the weather 
faire, but close. From the seuen and twentieth 
at noone, to the eight and twentieth at noone, 
sixe and twentie leagues East, South-east, the 
wind shifting backe againe from the East to the 
West. Then by mine obseruation I found the 
ship to be in thirtie fiue degrees fiftie foure min- 
utes. From the eight and twentieth at noone, 


Atlantic Ocean 


to the nine and twentieth at noone, thirtie sixe 
leagues East by South, the wind at West, North- 
west. Then by my obseruation I found the ship 
to be in thirtie fiue degrees, thirtie minutes 
pricked. From the nine and twentieth at noone 
to the thirtieth at noone, thirtie fiue leagues 
East, South-east. The winde shifting betweene 
West, North-west, and West, South-west, blow- 
ing a good fresh gale. Then by my obserua- 
tion I found the ship to be in thirtie foure 
degrees, fortie nine minutes pricked. From the 
thirtieth of Iune at noone, to the first of Iuly 
at noone, thirtie leagues South-east by East, the 
winde at west, then I found the ship in thirtie 
foure degrees pricked. 

From the first of Iuly at noone, to the second 
at noon, twentie leagues East, South-east south- 
erly, the wind West, then I found the ship to bee 
in thirtie three degrees, thirtie minutes pricked, 
the weather very faire. From the second at 
noone, to the third at foure of the clocke in 
the afternoone it was calme, then it beganne 
to blow a resonable fresh gale at South-east: 
so I made account that the ship had driuen 
about sixe leagues in that time East. The Sea 
did set all about the West. From that time to 
the fourth at noone, seuenteen leagues East by 
North, the wind shifting betweene South-east 
and South South-west, then I found the ship to 
bee in thirtie three degrees, fortie minutes, the 




Samuel Argall 

weather continued very faire. From the fourth 
at noone, to the fifth at noone, ten leagues 
South-east, the wind and weather as before, then 
I found the ship to be in thirtie three degrees, 
seuenteene minutes pricked. From the fift at 
noone, to the sixt at noone, eight leagues South- 
west, then I found the ship to be in thirtie 
two degrees, fiftie seuen minutes pricked ; the 
wind and weather continued as before, only we 
had a small showre or two of raine. From the 
sixt at noone, to the seuenth at noone, seuen- 
teene leagues East by North, then I found the 
ship to be in thirtie three degrees, the wind 
and weather as before. From the seuenth at 
noon, to the eight at noone, fourteene leagues 
North-east, then I found the ship to be in thir- 
tie three degrees, thirtie two minutes, the wind 
and weather continued as before. From the 
eight at noon to the ninth at noone, fiue leagues 
South-east, there I found the ship to be in thir- 
tie three degrees, twentie one minutes, the wind 
at South-west, the weather very faire. From 
the ninth at noone, to the tenth at noone, fiue 
leagues South, the wind westerly ; but for the 
most part it was calme, and the weather very 
faire. From the tenth at noone, to the eleuenth 
at noone it was calme, and so continued vntill 
nine of the clocke the same night, then it began 
to blow a reasonable fresh gale at South-east, 
and continued all that night betweene South- 

Atlantic Ocean 


east and South, and vntill the twelfth day at 
noone : by which time I had sailed fifteene 
leagues West southerly : then I found the ship 
in thirtie three degrees, thirtie minutes. From 
that time to foure of the clock the twelfth day 
in the morning twelue leagues West by North, 
the wind all southerly, and then it shifted be- 
tweene South and South-west, then wee tacked 
about and stood South-east, and South-east by 
South : so by noone I had say led fiue leagues 
South-east by East ; then I found the ship in 
thirtie three degrees ten minutes. From the 
thirteenth at noone, to the fourteenth at noone, 
twenty leagues South-east by East, the wind 
shifting betweene the South-west, and West 
South-west, then I found the ship to be in thir- 
tie two degrees, thirtie fiue minutes. From the 
fourteenth at noone, to the fifteenth at noone, 
twentie leagues South-east, then I found the 
ship to be in thirty two degrees, the wind as 
before: then we tacked about, and lay North- 
west by West. From the fifteenth at noone, to 
the sixteenth at noone, twelue leagues North by 
West, the wind shifting betweene South-west 
and West, and the weather very stormy, with 
many sudden gusts of wind and rayne. 

And about sixe of the clocke in the after- 
noone, being to windward of our Admirall I 
bare vp vnder his lee : who when I hayled him, 
told me that he would tack it vp no longer, 



Samuel Argall 

because hee was not able to keepe the sea any 
longer, for lacke of a road and water : but that 
hee would presently steere away North North- 
west, to see if he could fetch Cape Cod. Which 
without delay he put in execution. His direc- 
tions I followed : so from the sixteenth day at 
noone, to the seuenteenth at noone I had sailed 
thirtie eight leagues North North-west: then 
I found my ship to be in thirtie foure degrees, 
ten minutes. The seuenteenth and eighteenth 
dayes were very wet and stormy, and the winds 
shifting all points of the Compasse. The nine- 
teenth day, about foure of the clocke in the 
morning it began to cleere vp, and then we had 
a very stifFe gale betweene East and North-east. 
From the seuenteenth at noone, to the nine- 
teenth at noone, I had sayled fiftie fiue leagues 
North North-west, then I found the ship to 
be thirtie sixe degrees, thirty minutes. From 
the nineteenth at noone, to the twentieth at 
noone, thirty fiue leagues North-west : then I 
was in thirty seuen degrees, fifty two minutes, 
the weather now was fairer and the wind all 
easterly. From the twentieth at noone, to the 
twentie one at noone, we sayled twenty leagues 
North by West, the wind betweene East and 
South-east, and the weather very faire. At the 
sunne setting I obserued, and found thirteene 
degrees, and an halfe of westerly variation, and 
vntill midnight we had a reasonable fresh gale 


Atlantic Ocean 


of wind all southerly, and then it fell calme and 
rained, and so continued very little wind vntill 
the two and twentieth at noone, and shifting 
all the points of the Compasse: yet by mine 
obseruation that I made then, I found that the 
ship had run twentie fiue leagues North, for I 
found her to be in forty degrees, one minute, 
which maketh me thinke that there was some 
tide or current that did set Northward. Againe, 
those that had the second watch did say, That 
in their watch they did see a race, and that ship 
did driue apace to the Northward, when she 
had not a breath of wind. 

From the two and twentieth at noone, vn- 
till ten of the clocke at night, we had a fresh 
gale of wind, betweene East and South-east, and 
then it shifted all westerly, and so continued 
vntill two of the clocke the twenty three in the 
morning : and then it began to be very foggy 
and but little wind, yet shifting all the points 
of the Compasse, and so continued vntill ten of 
the clocke and then it began to cleere vp. At 
twelue of the clocke I obserued, and then I 
found the ship to be in fortie degrees fiftie 
minutes : so from the twenty two at noone, to 
the twenty three at noone I had sayled twenty 
leagues Northward. From the twenty three at 
noone, to the twenty foure, at three of the clocke 
in the morning it was calme, and then we had 
a reasonable fresh gale of wind all southerly, 



Samuel Argall 


and so it continued vntill noon southerly, in 
which time I had sailed twelue leagues North. 
And about foure of the clocke in the after- 
noone, we had forty seuen fathoms of water, 
which water we did find to be changed into a 
grasse green in the morning, yet we would not 
heaue a lead, because our Admirall was so farre 
on head of vs: who about three of the clocke in 
the afternoone lay by the lee, and fished till I 
came vp to him : and then I fitted my selfe and 
my boat, and fished vntill sixe of the clocke. 
And then the Admirall fitted his sailes, and 
stirred away North, whom I followed with all 
the speed I could. But before seuen of the 
clocke there fell such a myst, that I was faine 
to shoot off" a Peece, which he answered with 
a Cornet that he had aboord. So with hallow- 
ing and making a noyse one to another all the 
night we kept company. About two of the 
clocke, the twenty fiue day in the morning we 
tooke in all our sailes, and lay at Hull vntill 
fiue of the clocke: and then finding but small 
store offish, we set saile and stirred away North- 
west, to fetch the mayne land to relieue our 
selues with wood and water, which we stood in 
great need of. About two of the clocke in the 
afternoone we tooke in all our sailes and lay at 
Hull, at which time I heaued the lead three 
times together, and had three sundry kindes of 
soundings. The first a blacke peppery sand, full 


The Fishing Banks 


of peble stones. The second blacke peppery, 
and no stones : The third, blacke peppery, and 
two or three stones. 

From the fourth at noone, to the twentie 
fiue, at two of the clocke in the afternoone, 
I sayled thirteene leagues West North-west : 
and the weather continuing very foggy, thicke, 
and rainy, about iiue of the clocke it began 
to cease, and then we began to fish, and so con- 
tinued vntill seuen of the clocke in betweene 
thirty and forty fathoms, and then we could fish 
no longer. So hauing gotten betweene twentie 
and thirty Cods, we left for that night : and at 
fiue of the clocke, the twenty sixe in the morn- 
ing we began to fish againe, and so continued 
vntill ten of the clocke, and then it would fish 
no longer : in which time we had taken neere 
one hundred Cods, and a couple of Hollybuts. 
All this while wee had betweene thirty and 
forty fathoms water : before one of the clocke 
in the afternoone we found the ship driuen 
into one hundred and twenty fathoms, and soft 
blacke Ose. Then Sir George Somers sent me 
word, that he would set saile, and stand in for 
the Riuer of Sagadahoc ; whose directions I 

Before two of the clocke we set saile, and 
stirred away North-west by North, the wind 
South South-west, and the weather continued 
very foggy. About eight of the clocke wee 



Samuel Argall 

tooke in all our sailes, and lay at Hull at that 
night. The seuen and twentieth, about seuen 
of the clocke in the morning we heaued the 
lead, and had no ground in one hundred and 
twentie fathoms. Then I shot off a Peece, but 
could not heare none answere from our Admi- 
rall : and the weather was so thicke, that we 
could not see a Cables length from our ship. 
Betweene nine and ten of the clock we did 
thinke that we did heare a Peece of Ordnance 
to windward : which made me suppose our 
Admirall had set saile, and that it was a warning 
piece from him. So I set sayle and stood close 
by the wind, and kept an hollowing and a noise 
to try whether I could find him againe : the 
wind was at South-west, and I stood away West 
North-west. From the sixe and twentieth, at 
two of the clocke in the afternoone, to eight 
of the clocke at night I had sayled nine leagues 
North-west. The seuen and twentieth at noone 
I heaued the Lead, in one hundred and twenty 
fathoms, and had no ground. Then I stirred 
away North-west, till foure of the clocke at 
night : then I heaued the Lead againe one hun- 
dred and twenty fathoms, and had no ground. 
Then I tooke all my sailes and lay at Hull, and 
I had sayled seuen leagues North-west. The 
eight and twentieth, at seuen of the clocke in 
the morning I did sound in one hundred and 
twenty fathoms, and had no ground. Then I 


The Fishing Banks 


set sayle againe, and steered away North, and 
North by West. At noone I heaued in one 
hundred and twenty fathoms againe, and had 
no ground. So I steered on my course still, the 
wind shifted betweene South and South-west, 
and the fog continued. At foure of the clocke 
in the afternoone, I heaued one hundred twenty 
fathoms againe, and had no ground : so I stood 
on vntill eight of the clocke, by which time 
I had sailed twelue leagues : then I heaued the 
Lead againe, and had blacke Ose, and one hun- 
dred thirty fiue fathoms water. Then I tooke 
in all my sayles and lay at hull vntill the nine 
and twentieth, at fiue of the clocke in the morn- 
ing. Then I set saile againe, and steered away 
North, and North by West. At eight of the 
clocke I heaued the Lead againe, and had blacke 
Ose in one hundred and thirty fathoms water. 
Betweene eleuen and twelue of the clocke it 
began to thunder, but the fogge continued not 
still. About two of the clocke in the after- 
noone, I went out with my Boat my selfe and 
heaued the Lead, and had blacke Ose in ninety 
fathoms water : by which time I had sailed six 
leagues North by West more. Then I tooke 
in all my sayles sauing my Fore-course and 
Bonnet, and stood in with those sailes onely. 
About sixe of the clocke I sounded againe, and 
then I had sixty fiue fathoms water. As soone 
as I came aboord it cleered vp, and then I saw 



Samuel Argall 

Seal Rock 







a small Hand, which bare North about two 
leagues off; whereupon I stood in vntill eight 
of the clocke : And then I stood off againe vn- 
till two of the clocke in the morning the thir- 
tieth day. Then I stood in againe, and about 
eight of the clocke I was faire aboord the Hand. 
Then I manned my Boat and went on shoare, 
where I found great store of Seales : And I 
killed three Seales with my hanger. This Hand 
is not halfe a mile about, nothing but a Rocke, 
which seemed to be very rich Marble stone. 
And a South South-west Moon maketh a full 
Sea. About ten of the clocke I came aboord 
againe, with some Wood that I had found vpon 
the Hand, for there had beene some folkes that 
had made fiers there. Then I stood ouer to an- 
other Hand that did beare North off me about 
three leagues ; this small rockie Hand lyeth in 
forty foure degrees. About seuen of the clocke 
that night I came to an anchor among many 
Hands in eight fathoms water : and vpon one 
of these Hands I fitted my selfe with Wood and 
Water, and Balast. 

The third day of August, being fitted to put 
to Sea againe, I caused the Master of the ship to 
open the boxe wherein my Commission was, to 
see what directions I had, and for what place I 
was bound to shape my course. Then I tried 
whether there were any fish there or not, and 
I found reasonable good store there ; so I stayed 


Massachusetts Ba 



there fishing till the twelfth of August : and 
then finding that the fishing did faile, I thought 
good to returne to the Hand where I had killed 
the Seales, to see whether I could get any store 
of them or not ; for I did find that they were 
very nourishing meate, and a great reliefe to my 
men, and that they would be very well saued 
with salt to keepe a long time. But when I 
came thither I could not by any meanes catch 
any. The fourteenth day at noone I obserued 
the Sun, and found the Hand to lie in forty 
three degrees, forty minutes. Then I shaped 
my course for Cape Cod, to see whether I could 
get any fish there or not : so by the fifteenth at 
noone, I had sailed thirty two leagues South- 
west, the wind for the most part was betweene 
North-west and North. From the fifteenth at 
noone, to the sixteenth at noone I ran twenty 
leagues South, the wind shifting betweene West 
and South-west. And then I sounded and had 
ground in eighteene fathoms water, full of shels 
and peble stones of diuers colours, some greene, 
and some blewish, some like diamants, and some 
speckled. Then I tooke in all my sayles, and set 
all my company to fishing, and fished till eight 
of the clocke that night: and finding but little 
fish there, I set sayle againe, and by the seuen- 
teenth at noone I had sayled ten leagues West 
by North, the wind shifting betweene South 
and South-west. From noone, till sixe of the 



Samuel Argall 

Cape Cod 

clocke at night, foure leagues North-west, the 
wind shifting betweene West and South-west. 
Then it did blow so hard that I tooke in all my 
sayles, and lay at hull all that night, vntill fiue 
of the clock the eighteenth day in the morn- 
ing : and then I set saile againe, and by noone 
I had sailed foure leagues North-west, the wind 
betweene West and South-west. From the eigh- 
teenth at noone, to the nineteenth at noone ten 
leagues West by West, the wind shifting be- 
tweene South and South-west, and the weather 
very thick and foggy. 

About seuen of the clocke at night the fogge 
began to breake away, and the wind did shift 
westerly, and by midnight it was shifted to the 
North, and there it did blow very hard vntill 
the twenty at noone : but the weather was very 
cleere, and then by my obseruation I found the 
ship to bee in the latitude of forty one degrees, 
forty foure minutes, and I had sailed twenty 
leagues South-west by West. From the nine- 
teenth at noone, to the twentieth at noone : 
about two of the clocke in the afternoone I did 
see an Hed-land, which did beareofFme South- 
west, about foure leagues : so I steered with it, 
taking it to bee Cape Cod ; and by foure of the 
clocke I was fallen among so many shoales, that 
it was fiue of the clocke the next day in the 
morning before I could get cleere of them, it 
is a very dangerous place to fall withall: for the 


Cape Cod 

shoales lie at the least ten leagues off from the 
Land; and I had vpon one of them but one 
fathom and an halfe water, and my Barke did 
draw seuen foot. This Land lyeth South-west, 
and North-east, and the shoales lie off from it 
South and South by West, and so along toward 
the North. At the North-west by West Guards 
I obserued the North-starre, and found the ship 
to be in the latitude of fortie one degrees, fif- 
tie minutes, being then in the middle of the 
Sholdes : and I did finde thirteene degrees west- 
erly variation then likewise. Thus finding the 
place not to be for my turne, as soon as I was 
cleere of these dangers, I thought it fit to re- 
turne to lames Towne in Virginia, to the Lord 
De-lawarre, my Lord Gouernour, and there to 
attend his command: so I shaped my course for 
that place. 




John Smith, in the autumn of 1609, returned to Eng- 
land from Virginia, to answer charges against his ad- 
ministration, and thereafter he had no official connection 
with that colony. Two years later he was sent to New 
England by some London merchants who had engaged 
in a trading and fishing venture. While his companions 
were occupied with the business of securing a return 
cargo, Smith made an exploring trip along the coast. 
His observations, supplemented by charts and informa- 
tion secured from other navigators, enabled him to pre- 
pare the first published map which gives an accurate 
contour of the coast. In 1 6 1 5 Smith made two unsuc- 
cessful attempts to revisit New England, and in 1617 he 
again planned to take part in an expedition which never 
left port. His "Description of New-England" printed 
in 16 1 6, was followed in 1620 by his " New-Englands 
Trials," which contains a brief summary of the voyages 
and attempts at colonization northward of Virginia. 



of 3\Qw England: 



difcoucrieSjof Captain John Smtth(Admira\l 

of chat Councry) in the North of America^ in the year 

of our Lord 1 6 1 4 : with thefuccejfe of fixe Skips % 

that went the next y ear e 1 6 1 5 \ and the 

accidents bt fell him among the 

French men ofwarrei 

With the proofe of the prefenc benefit this 

Countrcyaffoords: whither this prefcntycarC| 

1 6 1 6 , eight vdtiHtArj Shift are gone 

to make further try all. 


Printed by Humfrey Lownes, for Robert Clerke ; and 

arc to be (ould ac his houle called the Lodge, 

in Chancery lane, oner againftLin- 

colneslnne, 1615. 

Earliest Book in which the Name " Neiu England" occurs 


of % New England \ by Captaine 
John Smith. 

IN the moneth of Aprill, 1 6 1 4, with two 
Ships from London, of a few Marchants, 
I chanced to arrive in New-England, a 
parte of Ameryca, at the He of Monahiggan, in 
43^ of Northerly latitude : our plot was there 
to take Whales and make tryalls of a Myne of 
Gold and Copper. If those failed, Fish and 
Furres was then our refuge, to make our selves 
savers howsoever : we found this Whalefishing 
a costly conclusion : we saw many, and spent 
much time in chasing them ; but could not kill 
any: They beeing a kinde of Iubartes, and not 
the Whale that yeeldes Finnes and Oyle as wee 
expected. For our Golde, it was rather the 
Masters device to get a voyage that proiected it, 
then any knowledge hee had at all of any such 
matter. Fish and Furres was now our guard : 
and by our late arrival, and long lingring about 
the Whale, the prime of both those seasons 
were past ere wee perceived it ; we thinking 
that their seasons served at all times : but wee 
found it otherwise ; for by the midst of Iune, 


2I 3 




John Smith 


the fishing failed. Yet in Iuly and August some 
was taken, but not sufficient to defray so great 
a charge as our stay required. Of dry fish we 
made about 40000. of Cor-fish about 7000. 
Whilest the sailers fished, my selfe with eight 
or nine others of them might best bee spared ; 
Ranging the coast in a small boat, wee got 
for trifles neer 11 00 Bever skinnes, 100 Mar- 
tins, and neer as many Otters ; and the most of 
them within the distance of twenty leagues. 
We ranged the Coast both East and West much 
furder; but Eastwards our commodities were 
not esteemed, they were so neare the French 
who affords them better : and right against us 
in the Main was a Ship of Sir Frances Popp- 
hames, that had there such acquaintance, having 
many yeares used onely that porte, that the most 
parte there was had by him. And 40 leagues 
westwards were two French Ships, that had 
made there a great voyage by trade, during the 
time wee tryed those conclusions, not knowing 
the Coast, nor Salvages habitation. With these 
Furres, the Traine, and Cor-fish I returned for 
England in the Bark : where within six monthes 
after our departure from the Downes, we safe 
arrived back. The best of this fish was solde for 
five pound the hundreth, the rest by ill usage 
betwixt three pound and fifty shillings. The 
other Ship staied to fit herselfe for Spaine with 
the dry fish which was sould, by the Sailers 



reporte that returned, at forty ryalls the quin- 
tall, each hundred weighing two quintalls and 
a halfe. 

New England is that part of America in 
the Ocean Sea opposite to Nova Albyon in the 
South Sea ; discovered by the most memorable 
Sir Francis Drake in his voyage about the worlde. 
In regarde whereto this is stiled New England, 
beeing in the same latitude. New France, off 
it, is Northward : Southwardes is Virginia, and 
all the adioyning Continent, with New Gra- 
nado, New Spain, New Andolosia and the West 
Indies. Now because I have beene so oft asked 
such strange questions, of the goodnesse and 
greatnesse of those spatious Tracts of land, how 
they can bee thus long unknown, or not pos- 
sessed by the Spaniard, and many such like de- 
mands ; I intreat your pardons, if I chance to 
be too plaine, or tedious in relating my know- 
ledge for plaine mens satisfaction. 

Florida is the next adioyning to the Indies, 
which unprosperously was attempted to bee 
planted by the French. A Country farre bigger 
then England, Scotland, France and Ireland, 
yet little knowne to any Christian, but by the 
wonderful endevours of Ferdinando de Soto a 
valiant Spaniard : whose writings in this age is 
the best guide knowne to search those parts. 

Virginia is no He (as many doe imagine) but 
part of the Continent adioyning to Florida; 


2I 5 






John Smith 

whose bounds may be stretched to the magni- 
tude thereof without offence to any Christian 
inhabitant. For from the degrees of 30. to 45. 
his Maiestie hath granted his Letters patents, 
the Coast extending South-west and North-east 
aboute 1500 miles; but to follow it aboard, 
the shore may well be 2000. at the least: of 
which, 20. miles is the most gives entrance into 
the Bay of Chisapeak, where is the London 
plantation : within which is a Country (as you 
may perceive by the description in a Booke and 
Map printed in my name of that little I there 
discovered) may well suffice 300000 people to 
inhabit. And Southward adioyneth that part 
discovered at the charge of Sir Walter Rawley, 
by Sir Ralph Lane, and that learned Mathema- 
tician Mr. Thomas Heryot. Northward six or 
seaven degrees is the River Sadagahock, where 
was planted the Westerne Colony, by that Hon- 
ourable Patrone of vertue Sir Iohn Poppham 
Lord chief Iustice of England. Ther is also 
a relation printed by Captaine Bartholomew 
Gosnould, of Elizabeths lies : and an other by 
Captaine Waymoth, of Pemmaquid. From all 
these diligent observers, posterity may be bet- 
tered by the fruits of their labours. But for 
divers others that long before and since have 
ranged those parts, within a kenning sometimes 
of the shore, some touching in one place some 
in another, I must entreat them pardon me for 


Map of New England 


omitting them ; or if I offend in saying that their 
true descriptions are concealed, or never well 
observed, or died with the Authors : so that the 
Coast is yet still but even as a Coast unknowne 
and undiscovered. I have had six or seaven sev- 
erall plots of those Northren parts, so unlike 
each to other, and most so differing from any 
true proportion, or resemblance of the Coun- 
trey, as they did mee no more good, then so 
much waste paper, though they cost me more. 
It may be it was not my chance to see the 
best ; but least others may be deceived as I was, 
or throgh dangerous ignorance hazard them- 
selves as I did, I have drawen a Map from Point 
to Point, He to He, and Harbour to Harbour, 
with the Soundings, Sands, Rocks, and Land- 
marks as I passed close aboard the Shore in a 
little Boat ; although there be many things to 
bee observed which the haste of other affaires 
did cause me omit : for, being sent more to get 
present commodities, then knowledge by dis- 
coveries for any future good, I had not power 
to search as I would : yet it will serve to direct 
any shall goe that waies, to safe Harbours and 
the Salvages habitations : What marchandize 
and commodities for their labour they may 
finde, this following discourse shall plainely 

Thus you may see, of this 2000. miles more 
than halfe is yet unknowne to any purpose : no 



John Smith 

not so much as the borders of the Sea are yet 
certainly discovered. As for the goodnes and 
true substances of the Land, wee are for most 
part yet altogether ignorant of them, unlesse 
it be those parts about the Bay of Chisapeack 
and Sagadahock : but onely here and there wee 
touched or have seene a little the edges of those 
large dominions, which doe stretch themselves 
into the Maine, God doth know how many thou- 
sand miles ; whereof we can yet no more iudge, 
then a stranger that saileth betwixt England and 
France can describe the Harbors and dangers 
by landing here or there in some River or Bay, 
tell thereby the goodnesse and substances of 
Spaine, Italy, Germany, Bohemia, Hungaria and 
the rest. By this you may perceive how much 
they erre, that think every one which hath been 
at Virginia understandeth or knowes what Vir- 
ginia is : Or that the Spaniards know one halfe 
quarter of those Territories they possesse ; no, 
not so much as the true circumference of Terra 
Incognita, whose large dominions may equalize 
the greatnesse and goodnes of America, for any 
thing yet known. It is strange with what small 
power hee hath raigned in the East Indies ; and 
few will understand the truth of his strength in 
America : where he having so much to keepe 
with such a pampered force, they neede not 
greatly feare his furie, in the Bermudas, Vir- 
ginia, New France, or New England ; beyond 


Colonies in America 


whose bounds America doth stretch many thou- 
sand miles : into the frozen partes whereof one 
Master Hutson an English Mariner did make 
the greatest discoverie of any Christian I knowe 
of, where he unfortunately died. For Affrica, 
had not the industrious Portugales ranged her 
unknowne parts, who would have sought for 
wealth among those fryed Regions of blacke 
brutish Negers, where notwithstanding all the 
wealth and admirable adventures and endeav- 
ours more than 1 40 yeares, they knowe not one 
third of those blacke habitations. But it is not 
a worke for every one, to manage such an af- 
faire as makes a discoverie, and plants a Colony: 
It requires all the best parts of Art, Iudgement, 
Courage, Honesty, Constancy, Diligence and 
Industrie, to doe but neere well. Some are more 
proper for one thing then another ; and therein 
are to be imployed : and nothing breedes more 
confusion than misplacing and mis-imploying 
men in their undertakings. Columbus, Cortez, 
Pitzara, Soto, Magellanes, and the rest served 
more than a prentiship to learne how to begin 
their most memorable attempts in the West 
Indies ; which to the wonder of all ages suc- 
cessfully they effected, when many hundreds 
of others farre above them in the worlds opin- 
ion, beeing instructed but by relation, came to 
shame and confusion in actions of small mo- 
ment, who doubtlesse in other matters, were 




John Smith 

both wise, discreet, generous, and couragious. 
I say not this to detract any thing from their 
incomparable merits, but to answer those ques- 
tionlesse questions that keep us back from imi- 
tating the worthinesse of their brave spirits that 
advanced themselves from poore Souldiers to 
great Captaines, their posterity to great Lords, 
their King to be one of the greatest Potentates 
on earth, end the fruites of their labours, his 
greatest glory, power and renowne. 

That part wee call New England is betwixt 
the degrees of 41. and 45 : but that parte this 
discourse speaketh of, stretcheth but from Pen- 
nobscot to Cape Cod, some j§ leagues by a 
right line distant each from other: within which 
bounds I have seene at least 40. severall habi- 
tations upon the Sea Coast, and sounded about 
25 excellent good Harbours ; In many whereof 
there is ancorage for 500. sayle of ships of any 
burthen ; in some of them for 5000 : And more 
than 200 lies overgrowne with good timber, of 
divers sorts of wood, which doe make so many 
harbours as requireth a longer time than I had, 
to be well discovered. 

The principall habitation Northward we 
were at was Penobscot : Southward along the 
Coast and up the Rivers we found Mecadacut, 
Segocket, Pemmaquid, Nusconcus, Kenebeck, 
Sagadahock, and Aumoughcawgen ; And to 
those Countries belong the people of Segotago, 


Natives of New England 


Paghhuntanuck, Pocopassum, Taughtanakag- 
net, Warbigganus, Nassaque, Masherosqueck, 
Wawrigweck, Moshoquen, Wakcogo, Pashara- 
nack, &c. To these are allied the Countries of 
Aucocisco, Accominticus, Passataquack, Agga- 
wom and Naemkeck : all these, I could perceive, 
differ little in language, fashion, or government : 
though most be Lords of themselves, yet they 
hold the Bashabes of Pennobscot, the chiefe and 
greatest amongst them. 

The next I can remember by name are Mat- 
tahunts ; two pleasant lies of groves, gardens and 
corne fields a league in the Sea from the Mayne. 
Then Totant, Massachuset, Pocapawmet, Quo- 
nahassit, Sagoquas, Nahapassumkeck, Topeent, 
Seccasaw, Totheet, Nasnocomacak, Accomack, 
Chawum ; Then Cape Cod by which is Pawmet 
and the He Nawset of the language, and alliance 
of them of Chawum : The others are called 
Massachusets ; of another language, humor and 
condition: For their trade and marchandize; 
to each of their habitations they have diverse 
Townes and people belonging ; and by their 
relations and descriptions, more than 20 severall 
Habitations and Rivers that stretch themselves 
farre up into the Countrey, even to the borders 
of diverse great Lakes, where they kill and take 
most of their Bevers and Otters. From Pen- 
nobscot to Sagadahock this Coast is all Moun- 
tainous and lies of huge Rocks, but overgrowen 



John Smith 


with all sorts of excellent good woodes for 
building houses, boats, barks or shippes ; with 
an incredible abundance of most sorts of fish, 
much fowle, and sundry sorts of good fruites 
for mans use. 

Betwixt Sagadahock and Sowocatuck there 
is but two or three sandy Bayes, but betwixt 
that and Cape Cod very many : especially the 
Coast of the Massachusets is so indifferently 
mixed with high clayie or sandy cliffes in one 
place, and then tracts of large long ledges of 
divers sorts, and quarries of stones in other places 
so strangely divided with tinctured veines of 
divers colours : as, Free stone for building, Slate 
for tiling, smooth stone to make Fornaces and 
Forges for glasse or iron, and iron ore sufficient, 
conveniently to melt in them : but the most 
part so resembleth the Coast of Devonshire, I 
thinke most of the cliffes would make such 
limestone: If they be not of these qualities, they 
are so like, they may deceive a better iudgement 
then mine ; all which are so neere adioyning 
to those other advantages I observed in these 
parts, that if the Ore prove as good iron and 
Steele in those parts, as I know it is within the 
bounds of the Countrey, I dare engage my head 
(having but men skilfull to worke the simples 
there growing) to have all things belonging to 
the building the rigging of shippes of any pro- 
portion, and good marchandize for the fraught, 


Coast of Maine 


within a square of 1 o or 1 4 leagues : and were it 
for a good rewarde, I would not feare to prooue 
it in a lesse limitation. 

And surely by reason of those sandy cliffes 
and cliffes of rocks, both which we saw so 
planted with Gardens and Corne fields, and so 
well inhabited with a goodly, strong and well 
proportioned people, besides the greatnesse of 
the Timber growing on them, the greatnesse 
of the fish and moderate temper of the ayre (for 
of twentie five, not any was sicke, but two that 
were many yeares diseased before they went, 
notwithstanding our bad lodging and acciden- 
tall diet) who can but approoue this is a most 
excellent place, both for health and fertility ? 
And of all the foure parts of the world that I 
have yet seene not inhabited, could I have but 
meanes to transport a Colonie, I would rather 
live here than any where : and if it did not 
maintaine it selfe, were wee but once indiffer- 
ently well fitted, let us starve. 

The maine Staple, from hence to bee ex- 
tracted for the present to produce the rest, is 
fish ; which however it may seeme a mean and a 
base commoditie: yet who will but truely take 
the pains and consider the sequell, I thinke will 
allow it well worth the labour. It is strange to 
see what great adventures the hopes of setting 
forth men of war to rob the industrious inno- 
cent, would procure : or such massie promises 



John Smith 

in grosse: though more are choked then well 
fedde with such hastie hopes. But who doth 
not know that the poore Hollanders, chiefly 
by fishing, at a great charge and labour in all 
weathers in the open Sea, are made a people 
so hardy, and industrious ? and by the venting 
this poore commodity to the Easterlings for 
as meane, which is Wood, Flax, Pitch, Tarre, 
Rosin, Cordage, and such like (which they ex- 
change againe, to the French, Spaniards, Por- 
tugales, and English, &c. for what they want) 
are made so mighty, strong and rich, as no State 
but Venice, of twice their magnitude, is so well 
furnished with so many faire Cities, goodly 
Townes, strong Fortresses, and that aboundance 
of shipping and all sorts of marchandize, as well 
of Golde, Silver, Pearles, Diamonds, Pretious 
Stones, Silkes, Velvets, and Cloth of golde ; as 
Fish, Pitch, Wood, or such grosse commodities? 
What Voyages and Discoveries, East and West, 
North and South, yea about the world, make 
they ? What an Army by Sea and Land, have 
they long maintained in despite of one of the 
greatest Princes of the world? And never could 
the Spaniard with all his Mynes of golde and 
Silver, pay his debts, his friends, and army, halfe 
so truly, as the Hollanders stil have done by 
this contemptible trade offish. Divers (I know) 
may alledge, many other assistances : But this 
is their Myne ; and the Sea the source of those 


"The Fisheries 


silvered streams of all their vertue ; which hath 
made them now the very miracle of industrie, 
the pattern of perfection for these affaires : and 
the benefit of fishing is that Primum mobile that 
turns all their Spheres to this height of plentie, 
strength, honour and admiration. 

Herring, Cod, and Ling, is that triplicitie 
that makes their wealth and shippings multipli- 
cities, such as it is, and from which (few would 
thinke it) they yearly draw at least one million 
and a halfe of pounds starling ; yet it is most 
certaine (if records be true:) and in this faculty 
they are so naturalized, and of their vents so 
certainly acquainted, as there is no likelihood 
they will ever bee paralleld, having 2 or 3000 
Busses, Flat bottomes, Sword pinks, Todes, and 
such like, that breedes them Saylers, Mariners, 
Souldiers and Marchants, never to be wrought 
out of that trade, and fit for any other. I will 
not deny but others may gaine as well as they, 
that will use it, though not so certainely, nor so 
much in quantity ; for want of experience. And 
this Herring they take upon the Coast of Scot- 
land and England; their Cod and Ling, upon 
the Coast of Izeland and in the North Seas. 

Hamborough, and the East Countries, for 
Sturgion and Caviare, gets many thousands of 
pounds from England, and the Straites : Por- 
tugale, the Biskaines, and the Spaniards, make 
40 or 50 Saile yearely to Cape-blank, to hooke 



John Smith 

for Porgos, Mullet, and make Puttardo: and 
New found Land, doth yearely fraught neere 
800 sayle of Ships with a sillie leane skinny 
Poore-Iohn, and Cor-fish, which at least yeare- 
ly amounts to 3 or 400000 pound. If from all 
those parts such paines is taken for this poore 
gaines offish, and by them hath neither meate, 
drinke, nor clothes, wood, iron, nor Steele, pitch, 
tarre, nets, leades, salt, hookes, nor lines, for 
shipping, fishing, nor provision, but at the sec- 
ond, third, fourth, or fift hand, drawne from so 
many severall parts of the world ere they come 
together to be used in this voyage : If these I 
say can gaine, and the Saylers live going for 
shares, lesse then the third part of their labours, 
and yet spend as much time in going and com- 
ming as in staying there, so short is the sea- 
son of fishing ; why should wee more doubt, 
then Holland, Portugale, Spaniard, French, or 
other, but to doe much better then they, where 
there is victuall to feede us, wood of all sorts, 
to build Boats, Ships, or Barks ; the fish at our 
doores, pitch, tarre, masts, yards, and most of 
other necessaries onely for making ? And here 
are no hard Landlords to racke us with high 
rents, or extorted fines to consume us, no tedious 
pleas in law to consume us with their many 
years disputations for Iustice : no multitudes to 
occasion such impediments to good orders, as 
in popular States. So freely hath God and his 


New England 


Maiesty bestowed those blessings on them that 
will attempt to obtaine them, as here every man 
may be master and owner of his owne labour 
and land ; or the greatest part in a small time. 
If hee have nothing but his hands, he may set 
up this trade: and by industrie quickly grow 
rich ; spending but halfe that time wel, which 
in England we abuse in idlenes, worse or as ill. 
Here is ground also as good as any lyeth in the 
height of forty one, forty two, forty three, &c. 
which is as temperate and as fruitfule as any 
other paralell in the world. As for example, on 
this side the line West of it in the South Sea, is 
Nova Albion, discovered as is said, by Sir Francis 
Drake. East from it, is the most temperate part 
of Portugale, the ancient kingdomes of Galazia, 
Biskey, Navarre, Arragon, Catalonia, Castilia 
the olde and the most moderatest of Castilia 
the new, and Valentia, which is the greatest part 
of Spain : which if the Spanish Histories bee 
true, in the Romanes time abounded no lesse 
with golde and silver Mines, then now the West 
Indies ; The Romanes then using the Spaniards 
to work in those Mines, as now the Spaniard 
doth the Indians. 

In France, the Provinces of Gasconie, Langa- 
dock, Avignon, Province, Dolphine, Pyamont, 
and Turyne, are in the same paralel : which are 
the best and richest parts of France. In Italy, 
the provinces of Genua, Lumbardy, and Ve- 


John Smith 

rona, with a great part of the most famous 
State of Venice, the Dukedoms of Bononia, 
Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna, Bolognia, Florence, 
Pisa, Sienna, Urbine, Ancona, and the ancient 
Citie and Countrey of Rome, with a great part 
of the great Kingdome of Naples. In Slavonia, 
Istrya, and Dalmatia, with the Kingdomes of 
Albania. In Grecia, that famous Kingdome 
of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Thessalia, Thracia, or 
Romania, where is seated the most pleasant 
and plentifull Citie in Europe, Constantinople. 
In Asia also, in the same latitude, are the tem- 
peratest parts of Natolia, Armenia, Persia, and 
China, besides divers other large Countries and 
Kingdomes in these most milde and temper- 
ate Regions of Asia. Southward, in the same 
height, is the richest of golde Mynes, Chilyand 
Baldivia, and the mouth of the great River of 
Plate, &c : for all the rest of the world in that 
height is yet unknowne. Besides these reasons, 
mine owne eyes that have seene a great part of 
those Cities and their Kingdomes, as well as it, 
can finde no advantage they have in nature, but 
this. They are beautified by the long labor and 
diligence of industrious people and Art. This 
is onely as God made it, when he created the 
worlde. Therefore I conclude, if the heart and 
intralls of those Regions were sought : if their 
Land were cultured, planted and manured by 
men of industrie, iudgement, and experience ; 


New England 


what hope is there, or what neede they doubt, 
having those advantages of the Sea, but it might 
equalize any of those famous Kingdomes, in all 
commodities, pleasures, and conditions ? seeing 
even the very edges doe naturally afford us such 
plenty, as no ship need returne away empty ; 
and onely use but the season of the Sea, fish 
will returne an honest gaine, beside all other 
advantages ; her treasures having yet never beene 
opened, nor her originalls wasted, consumed, 
nor abused. 

And whereas it is said, the Hollanders serve 
the Easterlings themselves, and other parts that 
want with Herring, Ling, and wet Cod ; the 
Easterlings, a great part of Europe, with Stur- 
gion and Caviare; Cape-blanke, Spain, Portu- 
gale,and the Levant, with Mullet, and Puttargo ; 
New found Land, all Europe, with a thin Poore 
Iohn ; yet all is so overlade with fishers, as the 
fishing decayeth, and many are constrained to 
returne with a small fraught. Norway, and Po- 
lonia, Pitch, Tar, Masts, and Yardes; Sweath- 
land, and Russia, Iron, and Ropes ; France, and 
Spaine, Canvas, Wine, Steele, Iron, and Oyle ; 
Italy and Greece, Silks, and Fruites. I dare 
boldly say, because I have seen naturally grow- 
ing, or breeding in those parts the same mate- 
rial Is that all those are made of, they may as 
well be had here, or the most part of them, 
within the distance of 70 leagues for some few 



John Smith 


ages, as from all those parts ; using but the same 
meanes to have them that they doe, and with 
all those advantages. 

First, the ground is so fertill, that question- 
less it is capable of producing any Grain, Fruits, 
or Seeds you will sow or plant, growing in the 
Regions afore named : But it may be, not every 
kinde to that perfection of delicacy ; or some 
tender plants may miscarie, because the Sum- 
mer is not so hot, and the winter is more colde 
in those parts wee have yet tryed neere the Sea 
side, then we finde in the same height in Eu- 
rope or Asia; Yet I made a Garden upon the 
top of a Rockie He in 43*^, 4 leagues from the 
Main, in May, that grew so well, as it served 
us for sallets in Iune and Iuly. All sorts of 
cattell may here be bred and fed in the lies, 
or Peninsulaes, securely for nothing. In the In- 
terim till they encrease if need be (observing 
the seasons) I durst undertake to have corne 
enough from the Salvages for 300 men, for a 
few trifles ; and if they should bee untoward 
(as it is most certaine they are) thirty or forty 
good men will be sufficient to bring them all 
in subiection, and make this provision; if they 
understand what they doe : 200 whereof may 
nine monethes in the yeare be imployed in 
making marchandable fish, till the rest provide 
other necessaries, fit to furnish us with other 




In March, April, May, and halfe Iune, here 
is Cod in abundance ; in May, Iune, luly, and 
August Mullet and Sturgion ; whose roes doe 
make Caviare and Puttargo. Herring, if any 
desire them, I have taken many out of the 
bellies of Cod, some in nets ; but the Salvages 
compare their store in the Sea, to the haires 
of their heads : and surely there are an incred- 
ible abundance upon this Coast. In the end of 
August, September, October, and November, 
you have Cod againe to make Cor-fish, or Poore 
Iohn : and each hundred is as good as two 
or three hundred in the New-found Land. So 
that halfe the labour in hooking, splitting, and 
turning, is saved : and you may have your fish 
at what Market you will, before they can have 
any in New-found Land :- where their fishing 
is chiefly but in Iune and luly : whereas it is 
heere in March, April, May, September, Oc- 
tober, and November, as is said. So that by 
reason of this plantation, the Marchants may 
have fraught both out and home : which yeelds 
an advantage worth consideration. 

Your Cor-fish you may in like manner trans- 
port as you see cause, to serve the Ports in Por- 
tugale (as Lisbon, Avera, Porta port, and divers 
others, or what market you please) before your 
Ilanders returne: They being tyed to the season 
in the open sea ; you having a double season, 
and fishing before your doors, may every night 


2 3 J 


John Smith 

sleep quietly a shore with good cheare and what 
fires you will, or when you please with your 
wives and familie : they onely, their ships in the 
maine Ocean. 

The Mullets heere are in that abundance, 
you may take them with nets, sometimes by 
hundreds, where at Cape blank they hooke 
them ; yet those but one foot and a halfe in 
length ; these two, three, or foure, as oft I have 
measured : much Salmon some have found up 
the Rivers, as they have passed : and heer the 
ayre is so temperate, as all these at any time 
may well be preserved. 

Now, young boyes and girles Salvages, or 
any other, be they never such idlers, may turne, 
carry, and return fish, without either shame or 
any great paine : hee is very idle that is past 
twelve yeares of age and cannot doe so much : 
and she is very olde, that cannot spin a thred to 
make engines to catch them. 

For their transportation, the ships that go 
there to fish may transport the first : who for 
their passage will spare the charge of double 
manning their ships, which they must doe in 
the New-found Land, to get their fraught ; but 
one third part of that companie are onely but 
proper to serve a stage, carry a barrow, and turne 
Poor Iohn : notwithstanding, they must have 
meate, drinke, clothes, and pattage, as well as the 
rest. Now all I desire, is but this ; That those 


The Fisheries 

2 33 

that voluntarily will send shipping, should make 
here the best choice they can, or accept such 
as are presented them, to serve them at that 
rate : and their ships returning leave such with 
me, with the value of that they should receive 
comming home, in such provisions and neces- 
sarie tooles, armes, bedding and apparell, salt, 
hookes, nets, lines, and such like as they spare 
of the remainings ; who till the next returne 
may keepe their boates and doe them many 
other profitable offices : provided I have men 
of ability to teach them their functions, and a 
company fit for Souldiers to be Ready upon an 
occasion ; because of the abuses which have 
beene offered the poore Salvages, and the liberty 
both French or any that will, hath to deale 
with them as they please : whose disorders will 
be hard to reforme ; and the longer the worse. 
Now such order with facilitie might be taken, 
with every port Towne or Citie, to observe but 
this order, With free power to convert the be- 
nefits of their fraughts to what advantage they 
please, and increase their numbers as they see 
occasion ; who ever as they are able to subsist of 
themselves, may beginne the new Townes in 
New England in memory of their olde : which 
freedome being confined but to the necessity of 
the generall good, the event (with Gods helpe) 
might produce an honest, a noble, and a profita- 
ble emulation. 



John Smith 

Salt upon salt may assuredly be made ; if not 
at the first in ponds, yet till they bee provided 
this may be used : then the Ships may transport 
Kine, Horse, Goates, course Cloath, and such 
commodities as we want ; by whose arrivall may 
be made that provision of fish to fraught the 
Ships that they stay not : and then if the sailers 
goe for wages, it matters not. It is hard if this 
returne defray not the charge : but care must 
be had, they arrive in the Spring, or else pro- 
vision be made for them against the Winter. 

Of certaine red berries called Alkermes 
which is worth ten shillings a pound, but of 
these hath been sould for thirty or forty shil- 
lings the pound, may yearely be gathered a good 

Of the Musk Rat may bee well raised gaines, 
well worth their labour, that will endevor to 
make tryall of their goodnesse. 

Of Bevers, Otters, Martins, Blacke Foxes, and 
Furres of price, may yearely be had 6 or 7000 : 
and if the trade of the French were prevented, 
many more: 25000 this yeare were brought 
from those Northren parts into France; of 
which trade we may have as good part as the 
French, if we take good courses. 

Of Mynes of Golde and Silver, Copper, and 
probabilities of Lead, Christall and Allum, I 
could say much if relations were good assur- 
ances. It is true indeed, I made many trials 


New England 

2 35 

according to those instructions I had, which doe 
perswade mee I need not despaire, but there 
are metalls in the Countrey : but I am no Al- 
chymist, nor will promise more then I know : 
which is, Who will undertake the rectifying of 
an Iron forge, if those that buy meate, drinke, 
coals, ore, and all necessaries at a deer rate 
gaine ; where all these things are to be had for 
the taking up, in my opinion cannot lose. 

Of woods, seeing there is such plenty of all 
sorts, if those that build ships and boates, buy 
wood at so great a price, as it is in England, 
Spaine, France, Italy, and Holland, and all 
other provisions for the nourishing of mans 
life ; live well by their trade : when labour is 
all required to take those necessaries without 
any other tax ; what hazard will be here, but 
doe much better ? And what commoditie in 
Europe doth more decay then wood ? For the 
goodnesse of the ground, let us take it fertill, 
or barren, or as it is : seeing it is certaine it 
beares fruites, to nourish and feed man and 
beast, as well as England, and the Sea those 
severall sorts offish I have related. Thus seeing 
all good provisions for mans sustenance, may 
with this facility be had, by a little extraordi- 
narie labour, till that transported be increased ; 
and all necessaries for shipping, onely for la- 
bour: to which may bee added the assistance of 
the Salvages, which may easily be had, if they 



John Smith 

be discreetly handled in their kindes, towards 
fishing, planting and destroying woods. What 
gaines might be raised if this were followed 
(when there is but once men to fill your store 
houses, dwelling there, you may serve all Europe 
better and farre cheaper, then can the Izeland 
fishers, or the Hollanders, Cape blank, or New 
found Land : who must be at as much more 
charge than you) may easily be coniectured by 
this example. 

2000. pound will fit out a ship of 200. and 1 
of a 100 tuns : If the dry fish they both make, 
fraught that of 200. and goe for Spaine, sell it 
but at ten shillings a quintall ; but commonly 
it giveth fifteen, or twentie : especially when it 
commeth first, which amounts to 3 or 4000 
pound : but say but tenne, which is the lowest, 
allowing the rest for waste, it amounts at that 
rate, to 2000 pound, which is the whole charge 
of your two ships, and their equipage : Then 
the returne of the money, and the fraught of 
the ship for the vintage, or any other voyage, is 
cleere gaine, with your shippe of a 100 tuns of 
Train and oyle, besides the bevers, and other 
commodities ; and that you may have at home 
within six monethes, if God please but to send 
an ordinarie passage. Then saving halfe this 
charge by the not staying of your ships, your 
victual, overplus of men and wages ; with her 
fraught thither of things necessarie for the 


The Fisheries 


planters, the salt being there made : as also may 
the nets and lines, within a short time : if no- 
thing were to bee expected but this, it might 
in time equalize your Hollanders gaines, if not 
exceed them : they returning but wood, pitch, 
tarre, and such grosse commodities ; you wines, 
oyles, fruits, silkes, and such Straits commodi- 
ties, as you please to provide by your Factors, 
against such times as your shippes arrive with 
them. This would so increase our shipping and 
sailers, and so employ and encourage a great 
part of our idlers and others that want imploy- 
ments fitting their qualities at home, where 
they shame to doe that they would doe abroad ; 
that could they but once taste the sweet fruites 
of their owne labours, doubtlesse many thou- 
sands would be advised by good discipline, to 
take more pleasure in honest industrie, then in 
their humours of dissolute idlenesse. 

But, to returne a little more to the particu- 
lars of this Countrey, which I intermingle thus 
with my proiects and reasons, not being so suffi- 
ciently yet acquainted in those parts, to write 
fully the estate of the Sea, the Ayre, the Land, 
the Fruites, the Rocks, the People, the Govern- 
ment, Religion, Territories, and Limitations, 
Friends, and Foes : but, as I gathered from the 
niggardly relations in a broken language to my 
understanding, during the time I ranged those 
countries &c. The most Northren part I was 


2 3 8 

John Smith 


at, was the Bay of Pennobscot, which is East 
and West, North and South, more then ten 
leagues : but such were my occasions, I was 
constrained to be satisfied of them I found in 
the Bay, that the River ranne farre up into the 
Land, and was well inhabited with many peo- 
ple, but they were from their habitations, either 
fishing among the lies, or hunting the Lakes 
and Woods, for Deer and Bevers. The Bay is 
full of great Hands, of one, two, six, eight, or 
ten miles in length, which divides it into many 
faire and excellent good harbours. On the East 
of it, are the Tarrantines, their mortall ene- 
mies, where inhabit the French, as they report 
that live with those people, as one nation or 
family. And Northwest of Pennobscot is Me- 
caddacut, at the foot of a high mountaine, a 
kinde of fortresse against the Tarrantines, ad- 
ioyning to the high mountaines of Pennobscot, 
against whose feet doth beat the Sea : But over 
all the Land, lies, or other impediments, you 
may well see them sixteene or eighteene leagues 
from their situation. Segocket is the next; then 
Nusconcus, Pemmaquid, and Sagadahock. Up 
this river where was the westerne plantation 
are Aumuckcawgen, Kinnebeck, and divers 
others, where there is planted some corne fields. 
Along this River 40 or 50 miles, I saw nothing 
but great high clifFes of barren Rocks, over- 
growne with wood : but where the Salvages 



dwelt there the ground is exceeding fat and fer- 
till. Westward of this River, is the Countrey 
of Aucocisco, in the bottome of a large deepe 
Bay, full of many great lies, which divides it 
into many good harbours. Sowocotuck is the 
next, in the edge of a large sandy Bay, which 
hath many Rocks and lies, but few good har- 
bours, but for Barks, I yet know. But all this 
Coast to Pennobscot, and as farre I could see 
Eastward of it is nothing but such high craggy 
Cliffy Rocks and stony lies, that I wondered 
such great trees could growe upon so hard foun- 
dations. It is a Countrie rather to affright, then 
delight one. And how to describe a more 
plaine spectacle of desolation or more barren I 
knowe not. Yet the Sea there is the strangest 
fish-pond I ever saw ; and those barren lies so 
furnished with good woods, springs, fruits, fish, 
and fowle, that it makes mee thinke though 
the Coast be rockie, and thus affrightable ; the 
Vallies, Plaines, and interior parts, may well 
(notwithstanding) be verie fertile. But there 
is no kingdom so fertile hath not some part 
barren : and New England is great enough, to 
make many Kingdomes and Countries, were 
it all inhabited. As you passe the Coast still 
Westward, Accominticus and Passataquack are 
two convenient harbors for small barks ; and a 
good Countrie, within their craggie cliffs. An- 
goam is the next ; This place might content a 




John Smith 

right curious iudgement : but there are many 
sands at the entrance of the harbor : and the 
worst is, it is inbayed too farre from the deepe 
Sea. Heere are many rising hilles, and on their 
tops and descents many corne fields, and de- 
lightfull groves. On the East, is an He of two 
or three leagues in length ; the one halfe, plaine 
morish grasse fit for pasture, with many faire 
high groves of mulberrie trees gardens : and 
there is also Okes, Pines, and other woods to 
make this place an excellent habitation, beeing 
a good and safe harbor. 

Naimkeck though it be more rockie ground 
(for Angoam is sandie) not much inferior; 
neither for the harbor, nor any thing I could 
perceive, but the multitude of people. From 
hence doth stretch into the Sea the faire head- 
land Tragabigzanda, fronted with three lies 
called the three Turks heads : to the North of 
this, doth enter a great Bay, where wee founde 
some habitations and corne fields : they report 
a great River, and at least thirtie habitations, 
doo possesse this Countrie. But because the 
French had got their trade, I had no leasure to 
discover it. The lies of Mattahunts are on the 
West side of this Bay, where are many lies, and 
questionlesse good harbors : and then the Coun- 
trie of the Massachusets, which is the Paradise 
of all those parts : for, heere are many lies all 
planted with corne ; groves, mulberries, salvage 




gardens, and good harbors : the Coast is for the 
most part, high clayie sandie cliffs. The Sea 
Coast as you passe, shewes you all along large 
corne fields, and great troupes of well propor-' 
tioned people : but the French having remained 
heere neere sixe weekes, left nothing for us to 
take occasion to examine the inhabitants rela- 
tions, viz. if there be neer three thousand peo- 
ple upon these lies ; and that the River doth 
pearce many daies iourneis the intralles of that 
Countrey. We found the people in those parts 
verie kinde ; but in their furie no lesse valiant. 
For, upon a quarrell wee had with one of them, 
hee onely with three others crossed the harbor 
of Quonahassit to certaine rocks whereby wee 
must passe ; and there let flie their arrow es for 
our shot, till we were out of danger. 

Then come you to Accomack, an excellent 
good harbor, good land ; and no want of any 
thing, but industrious people. After much kind- 
nesse, upon a small occasion, wee fought also 
with fortie or fiftie of those: though some were 
hurt, and some slaine; yet within an houre after 
they became friendes. Cape Cod is the next 
presents it selfe : which is onely a headland of 
high hils of sand, overgrowne with shrubbie 
pines, hurts, and such trash ; but an excellent 
harbor for all weathers. This Cape is made by 
the maine Sea on the one side, and a great Bay 
on the other in forme of a sickle : on it doth 


Cape Cod 


John Smith 

inhabit the people of Pawmet : and in the 
bottome of the Bay, the people of Chawum. 
Towards the South and South west of this 
Cape, is found a long and dangerous shoale of 
sands and rocks. But so farre as I incircled it, 
I found thirtie fadom water aboard the shore 
and a strong current : which makes mee think 
there is a Channell about this shoale ; where 
is the best and greatest fish to be had, Winter 
and Summer, in all that Countrie. But, the 
Salvages say there is no Channell, but that the 
shoales beginne from the maine at Pawmet, to 
the He of Nausit ; and so extends beyond their 
knowledge into the Sea. The next to this is 
Capawack, and those abounding Countries of 
copper, corne, people, and mineralls ; which I 
went to discover this last yeare : but because 
I miscarried by the way, I will leave them, till 
God please I have better acquaintance with 

The Massachusets, they report, sometimes 
have warres with the Bashabes of Pennobscot ; 
and are not alwaies friends with them of Cha- 
wum and their alliants : but now they are all 
friends, and have each trade with other, so farre 
as they have societie, on each others frontiers. 
For they make no such voiages as from Pen- 
nobscot to Cape Cod; seldom to Massachew- 
set. In the North (as I have said) they begunne 
to plant corne, whereof the South part hath 


New England Landmarks 

2 43 

such plentie, as they have what they will from 
them of the North ; and in the Winter much 
more plenty of fish and foule : but both Winter 
and Summer hath it in the one part or other all 
the yeare ; being the meane and most indiffer- 
ent temper, betwixt heat and colde, of all the 
regions betwixt the Lyne and the Pole : but the 
furs Northward are much better, and in much 
more plentie, then Southward. 

The remarkablest lies and mountains for 
Landmarkes are these ; The highest He or So- 
rico, in the Bay of Pennobscot : but the three 
lies and a rock of Matinnack are much furder in 
the Sea; Metinicus is also three plaine lies and 
a rock, betwixt it and Monahigan : Monahi- 
gan is a rounde high He ; and close by it Mo- 
nanis, betwixt which is a small harbor where 
we ride. In Damerils lies is such another : Sag- 
adahock is knowne by Satquin, and foure or 
five lies in the mouth. Smyths lies are a heape 
together, none neere them, against Accomin- 
ticus. The three Turks heads are three lies 
seen far to Sea-ward in regard of the head-land. 

The cheefe headlands are onely Cape Tra- 
gabigzanda and Cape Cod. 

The cheefe mountaines, them of Pennob- 
scot : the twinkling mountaine of Aucocisco ; 
the greate mountaine of Sasanou ; and the high 
mountaine of Massachusit : each of which you 
shall finde in the Mappe; their places, formes, 



John Smith 

and altitude. The waters are most pure, pro- 
ceeding from the intrals of rockie mountaines ; 
the hearbes and fruits are of many sorts and 
kindes : as alkermes, currans, or a fruit like 
currans, mulberries, vines, respices, goosberries, 
plummes, walnuts, chesnuts, small nuts, &c. 
pumpions, gourds, strawberries, beans, pease, 
and mayze : a kinde or two of flax, wherewith 
they make nets, lines and ropes both small and 
great, verie strong for their quantities. 

Oke, is the chiefe wood ; of which there is 
great difference in regard of the soy le where it 
groweth, firre, pyne, walnut, chestnut, birch, 
ash, elme, cypresse, ceder, mulberrie, plum- 
tree, hazell, saxefrage, and many other sorts. 

Eagles, Gripes, diverse sorts of Haukes, 
Cranes, Geese, Brants, Cormorants, Ducks, 
Sheldrakes, Teale, Meawes, Guls, Turkies, 
Dive-doppers, and many other sorts, whose 
names I knowe not. 

Whales, Grampus, Porkpisces, Turbot, Stur- 
gion, Cod, Hake, Haddock, Cole, Cusk, or 
small Ling, Shark, Mackerrell, Herring, Mul- 
let, Base, Pinacks, Cunners, Pearch, Eels, Crabs, 
Lobsters, Muskles, Wilkes, Oysters, and diverse 
others &c. 

Moos, a beast bigger than a Stagge ; Deere, 
red, and Fallow ; Bevers, Wolves, Foxes, both 
blacke and other ; Aroughconds, Wild-cats, 
Beares, Otters, Martins, Fitches, Musquassus, 


New England Products 

2 45 

and diverse sorts of vermine, whose names I 
know not. All these and divers other good 
things do heere, for want of use, still increase, 
and decrease with little diminution, whereby 
they growe to that abundance. You shall scarce 
finde any Baye, shallow shore or Cove of sand, 
where you may not take many Clampes, or 
Lobsters, or both at your pleasure, and in many 
places lode your boat if you please ; Nor lies 
where you finde not fruits, birds, crabs, and 
muskles, or all of them, for taking, at a lowe 
water. And in the harbors we frequented, a 
little boye might take of Cunners, and Pinacks, 
and such delicate fish, at the ships sterne, more 
than sixe or tenne can eate in a daie ; but with 
a casting net, thousands when wee pleased : and 
scarce any place, but Cod, Cuske, Holybut, 
Mackerell, Scate, or such like, a man may take 
with a hooke or line what he will. And, in 
diverse sandy Baies, a man may draw with a net 
great store of Mullets, Bases, and diverse other 
sorts of such excellent fish, as many as his Net 
can drawe on shore : no River where there is 
not plentie of Sturgion, or Salmon, or both ; all 
which are to be had in abundance observing 
but their seasons. But if a man will goe at 
Christmasse to gather Cherries in Kent, he may 
be deceived ; though there be plentie in Sum- 
mer: so, heere these plenties have each their sea- 
sons, as I have expressed. We for the most part 



John Smith 

had little but bread and vinegar : and though 
the most part of Iuly when the fishing decaied 
they wrought all day, laie abroade in the lies 
all night, and lived on what they found, yet 
were not sicke : But I would wish none put 
himself long to such plunges ; except necessi- 
tie constraine it : yet worthy is that person to 
starve that heere cannot live ; if he have sense, 
strength and health : for there is no such pen- 
ury of these blessings in any place, but that a 
hundred men may, in one houre or two, make 
their provisions for a day : and hee that hath 
experience to manage well these affaires, with 
fortie or thirtie honest industrious men, might 
well undertake (if they dwell in these parts) to 
subiect the Salvages, and feed daily two or three 
hundred men, with as good corne, fish and flesh, 
as the earth hath of those kindes, and yet make 
that labor but their pleasure : provided that they 
have engins, that be proper for their purposes. 

Who can desire more content, that hath 
small meanes ; or but only his merit to advance 
his fortune, then to tread, and plant that ground 
hee hath purchased by the hazard of his life ? 
If he have but the taste of virtue, and magna- 
nimitie, what to such a minde can bee more 
pleasant, then planting and building a founda- 
tion for his Posteritie, gotte from the rude earth, 
by Gods blessing and his owne industrie, with- 
out prejudice to any? If hee have any graine 


New England 

of faith or zeale in Religion, what can hee 
doe lesse hurtfull to any ; or more agreeable 
to God, then to seeke to convert those poore 
Salvages to know Christ, and humanitie, whose 
labors with discretion will triple requite thy 
charge and paines ? What so truely sutes with 
honour and honestie, as the discovering things 
unknowne ? erecting Townes, peopling Coun- 
tries, informing the ignorant, reforming things 
unjust, teaching virtue ; and gaine to our Native 
mother-countrie a kingdom to attend her ; finde 
imployment for those that are idle, because they 
know not what to doe : so farre from wrong- 
ing any, as to cause Posteritie to remember 
thee; and remembering thee, ever honour that 
remembrance with praise ? 


t£f)oma0 Bermer 


Thomas Dermer made his first voyage to New Eng- 
land in 1615. 'The following year he sailed to New- 
foundland, where he may have remained until late in 
1 6 1 8. In 1619 he visited New England again, going 
from there to Virginia. He wrote an account of this 
voyage for Samuel Pur chas, who printed it in the fourth 
volume of" Purchas his Pilgrimes," published at Lon- 
don in 1625. 

Dermer s account of another voyage northward from 
Virginia, in the course of which he found divers ships 
from Amsterdam and Home trading with the natives 
on the Delaware and Hudson rivers, was presented to 
the Virginia Company in London, on July 10, 1621. 

To his Worshipfull Friend 
M. Samvel Pvrchas, 
Preacher of the Word, at 
the Church a little within 
Ludgate, London. 


IT was the nineteenth of May, before I was 
fitted for my discouery, when from Mona- 
higgan I set sayle in an open Pinnace of fiue 
tun, for the Hand I told you of. I passed alongst 
the Coast where I found some antient Planta- 
tions, not long since populous now vtterly void; 
in other places a remnant remaines, but not free 
of sicknesse. Their disease the Plague, for wee 
might perceiue the sores of some that had es- 
caped, who described the spots of such as vsually 
die. When I arriued at my Sauages natiue Coun- 
try (finding all dead) I trauelled alongst a daies 
iourney Westward, to a place called Nummas- 
taquyt, where finding Inhabitants, I dispatched 
a Messenger a dayes iourney further West, to 
Poconaokit which bordereth on the Sea; whence 
came to see me two Kings, attended with a 


2 5* 





Thomas Dermer 


guard of fiftie armed men, who being well sat- 
isfied with that my Sauage and I discoursed 
vnto them (being desirous of noueltie) gaue 
mee content in whasoeuer I demanded, where 
I found that former relations were true. Here I 
redeemed a Frenchman, and afterwards another 
at Mastacbusit, who three yeeres since escaped 
shipwracke at the North-east of Cape Cod. I 
must (amongst many things worthy obserua- 
tion) for want of leisure, therefore hence I passe 
(not mentioning any place where we touched 
in the way) to the Hand, which wee discouered 
the twelfth of Iune. Here we had good quar- 
ter with the Sauages, who likewise confirmed 
former reports. I found seuen seuerall places 
digged, sent home of the earth, with samples 
of other commodities elsewhere found, sound- 
ed the Coast, and the time being farre spent 
bare vp for Monahiggan, arriuing the three and 
[twenjtieth of Iune, where wee found our Ship 
ready to depart. To this He are two other neere 
adioyning, all which I called by the name of 
King lames his lies, because from thence I had 
the first motiues to search. For that (now prob- 
able passage) which may hereafter be both hon- 
ourable and profitable to his Maiestie. When I 
had dispatched with the ships ready to depart, 
I thus concluded for the accomplishing my 
businesse. In regard of the fewnesse of my men, 
not being able to leaue behind mee a compe- 


2 53 

tent number for defence, and yet sufficiently 
furnish my selfe, I put most of my prouisions 
aboord the Sampson of Cape Ward ready bound 
for Virginia, from whence hee came, taking no 
more into the Pinnace then I thought might 
serue our turnes, determining with Gods helpe 
to search the Coast along, and at Virginia to sup- 
ply our selues for a second discouery, if the first 
failed. But as the best actions are commonly 
hardest in effecting and are seldome without 
their crosses, so in this we had our share, and 
met with many difficulties : for wee had not 
sayled aboue forty leagues, but wee were taken 
with a Southerly storme, which draue vs to this 
strait ; eyther we must weather a rockie point 
of Land, or run into a broad Bay no lesse dan- 
gerous ; Incidit in Syllam, &c. the Rockes wee 
could not weather, though wee loosed till we 
receiued much water, but at last were forced 
to beare vp for the Bay, and run on ground 
a furlong off the shoare, where we had beene 
beaten to pieces, had wee not instantly throwne 
ouerboord our prouisions to haue our Hues ; by 
which meanes we escaped and brought off our 
Pinnace the next high water without hurt, hau- 
ing our Planke broken, and a small leake or 
two which we easily mended. Being left in this 
misery, hauing lost much bread, all our Beefe 
and Sider, some Meale and Apparell, with other 
prouisions and necessaries; having now little left 


2 54 

Thomas Dermer 


besides hope to encourage vs to persist : Yet 
after a little deliberation we resolued to pro- 
ceed and departed with the next faire winde. 
We had not now that faire quarter amongst the 
Sauages as before, which I take it was by reason 
of our Sauages absence, who desired (in regard 
of our long iourney) to stay with some of our 
Sauage friends at Sawabquatooke\ for now almost 
euery where, where they were of any strength 
they sought to betray vs. At Manamock (the 
Southerne part of Cape Cod, now called Sutcliffe 
Inlets} I was vnawares taken prisoner, when they 
sought to kill my men, which I left to man the 
Pinnace ; but missing of their purpose, they 
demanded a ransome, which had, I was as farre 
from libertie as before ; yet it' pleased God at 
last, after a strange manner to deliuer me, with 
three of them into my hands, and a little after 
the chiefe Sacheum himselfe ; who seeing me 
weigh anchor, would haue leaped ouerboord, 
but intercepted, craued pardon, and sent for the 
Hatchets giuen for ransome, excusing himselfe 
by laying the fault on his neighbours ; and to 
be friends sent for a Canoas lading of Corne, 
which receiued we set him free. I am loth to 
omit the story, wherein you would finde cause 
to admire the great mercy of God euen in our 
greatest misery, in giuing vs both freedome and 
reliefe at one time. Departing hence, the next 
place we arriued at was Capaock, an Hand for- 

Cape Cod 

merly discouered by the English, where I met 
with Epinew a Sauage that had liued in England, 
and speakes indifferent good English, who foure 
yeeres since being carried home, was reported to 
haue beene slaine, with diuers of his Countrey- 
men, by Saylors, which was false. With him I 
had much conference, who gaue mee very good 
satisfaction in euery thing almost I could de- 
mand. Time not permitting mee to search here, 
which I should haue done for sundry things of 
speciall moment : the wind faire, I stood away 
shaping my course as the Coast led mee, till 
I came to the most Westerly part where the 
Coast began to fall away Southerly. In my 
way I discouered Land about thirtie leagues 
in length, heretofore taken for Mayne, where 
I feared I had beene imbayed, but by the helpe 
of an Indian I got to the Sea againe, through 
many crooked and streight passages. I let passe 
many accidents in this iourney occasioned by 
treacherie, where wee were compelled twice to 
goe together by the eares, once the Sauages had 
great advantage of vs in a streight, not aboue a 
Bo we shot, and where a multitude of Indians let 
flye at vs from the banke, but it pleased God to 
make vs victours : neere vnto this wee found a 
most dangerous Catwract amongst small rockie 
Hands, occasioned by two vnequall tydes, the 
one ebbing and flowing two houres before the 
other : here wee lost an Anchor by the strength 





Thomas Dermer 





of the current, but found it deepe enough : from 
hence were wee carried in a short space by 
the tydes swiftnesse into a great Bay (to vs so 
appearing) but indeede is broken land, which 
gaue vs light of the Sea : here, as I said, the 
Land treadeth Southerly. In this place I talked 
with many Saluages, who told me of two sundry 
passages to the great Sea on the West, offered 
me Pilots, and one of them drew mee a Plot 
with Chalke vpon a Chest, whereby I found it 
a great Hand, parted the two Seas ; they report 
the one scarce passable for shoalds, perillous 
currents, the other no question to be made of. 
Hauing receiued these directions, I hastened to 
the place of greatest hope, where I purposed to 
make triall of Gods goodnesse towards vs, and 
vse my best endeuour to bring the truth to light, 
but wee were but onely shewed the entrance, 
where in seeking to passe wee were forced backe 
with contrary and ouerblowing windes, hardly 
escaping both our Hues. Being thus ouercharged 
with weather, I stood alongst the coast to seeke 
harbours, to attend a fauourable gale to recouer 
the streight, but being a harbourlesse Coast for 
ought we could then perceiue, wee found no suc- 
cour till wee arriued betwixt Cape Charles and 
the Maine on the East side the Bay Cbestapeake, 
where in a wilde Roade wee anchored ; and the 
next day (the eight of September) crossed the 
Bay to Kecoughtan, where the first newes strooke 



cold to our hearts, the general sicknesse ouer the 
Land. Here I resolued with all possible speede 
to returne in pursuite of this businesse, so that 
after a little refreshing, wee recouered vp the 
Riuer to lames Citie, and from thence to Cape 
Warde his Plantacon, where immediately wee 
fell to hewing of Boords for a close Decke, hau- 
ing found it a most desired course to attempt as 
before. As wee were thus labouring to effect 
our purposes, it pleased almighty God (who 
onely disposeth of the times and seasons, where- 
in all workes shall be accomplished) to visite 
vs with his heauie hand, so that at one time 
there were but two of vs able to helpe the rest, 
my selfe so sore shaken with a burning feauer, 
that I was brought euen vnto deaths doore, but 
at length by Gods assistance escaped, and haue 
now with the rest almost recouered my former 
strength. The Winter hauing ouertaken vs (a 
time on these Coasts especially) subiect to gusts 
and fearefull storms, I haue now resolued to 
choose a more temperate season, both for the 
generall good and our owne safeties. And thus 
I haue sent you a broken discourse, though in- 
deede very vnwilling to haue giuen any notice 
at all, till it had pleased God to haue blessed 
mee with a thorow search, that our eyes might 
haue witnessed the truth. I haue drawne a Plot 
of the Coast, which I dare not yet part with 
for feare of danger, let this therefore serue for 


2 S7 

a 5 8 

Thomas Dermer 

confirmation of your hopes, till I can better per- 
forme my promise and your desire ; for what I 
haue spoken I can produce at least mille testes ; 
farre separate, of the Sea behinde them, and of 
Ships, which come many dayes iourney from 
the West, and of the great extent of this Sea to 
the North and South, not knowing any bounds 
thereof Westward. I cease to trouble you till 
a better opportunity offer it selfe, remembring 
my best loue, &c. I rest 

Tours to command, 

Tho. Dermer. 

From Captaine Marttn bis Plan- 
tation. 2f Decemb. i6ip. 

C|)ri0top!)er Cetett 


Christopher Levett, who was born in York, Eng- 
land ', in 1586, landed on the Isles of Shoals in the autumn 
0/1613. Finding that this was no place for a permanent 
settlement, he crossed to the mouth of the Piscataqua 
River, where Robert Gorges, who had recently been ap- 
pointed governor of the territory granted to the Council 
for New England, was making his colonial headquar- 
ters. Levett had been given the right to settle and hold 
six thousand acres wherever he might choose to locate 
within this territory. He selected an island at the mouth 
of Portland harbour. 'There he left ten men to maintain 
his possession while he went back to England for recruits 
and supplies. To assist in securing these, he wrote an 
account of the country and of his adventures therein, 
which he doubtless intended to print as soon as he re- 
turned home. A variety of causes hindered the carrying 
out of his plans, and the book was not published until 
1628. The chapters now reprinted are those which 
contain the account of his experiences in New England. 
These chapters, as well as the extracts from Purchas 
and other works not otherwise credited, are taken from 
the copies of the original editions in the John Carter 
Brown Library at Providence, Rhode Island. 


My Discouery of diverse 
Riuers and Harbours, with 
their names, and which 
are fit for Plantations, and 
which not. 

THE first place I set my foote vpon in 
New England, was the Isles of Shoulds, 
being Hands in the Sea, about two 
Leagues from the Mayne. 

Vpon these Hands, I neither could see one 
good timber tree, nor so much good ground as 
to make a garden. 

The place is found to be a good fishing place 
for 6 Shippes, but more cannot well be there 
for want of convenient stage-roome, as this 
yeare's experience hath proved. 

The Harbor is but indifferent good. Vpon 
these Hands are no Savages at all. 

The next place I came vnto was Pannaway, 
where one M. Tomson hath made a Plantation, 
there I stayed about one Moneth in which time 
I sent for my men from the East : who came 
over in diverse Shipps. 

At this place I met with the Governour, who 





Christopher Levett 


came thither in a Barke which he had from 
one M. Weston about 20 dayes before I arived 
in the Land. 

The Governour then told me that I was 
joyned with him in Commission as a Counsel- 
ler, which being read I found it was so. And 
he then, in the presence of three more of the 
Counsell, administered unto me an oath. 

After the meeting of my men, I went a 
coasting in two boats with all my company. 

In the time I stayd with M. Tomson, I sur- 
veyed as much as possible I could, the wether 
being vnseasonable, and very much snow. 

In those parts I saw much good Timber. But 
the ground it seemed to me not to be good, 
being very rockey and full of trees and brush- 

There is great store of fowle of diverse sorts, 
wherof I fed very plentifully. 

About two English miles further to the East, 
I found a great River and a good harbour called 
Pascattaw/iy. But for the ground I can say 
nothing, but by the relation of the Sagamore 
or King of that place, who told me there was 
much good ground up in the river about seven 
or eight leagues. 

About two leagues further to the East, is an- 
other great river called Aquamenticus . There I 
think a good plantation maybe settled, for there 
is a good harbour for ships, good ground, and 


Cape Porpoise 


much already cleared, fit for planting of corne 
and other fruits, having heretofore ben planted 
by the Salvages who are all dead. There is good 
timber, and likely to be good fishing, but as 
yet there hath beene no tryall made that I can 
heare of. 

About 6 leagues further to the East is a 
harbour called Cape Porpas, the which is in- 
different good for 6 shippes, and it is generally 
thought to be an excellent place for fish, but as 
yet there hath been no tryall made, but there 
may be a good plantation seated, for there is 
good Timber and good ground, but will require 
some labour and charge. 

About foure leagues further East, there is an- 
other harbour called Sawco (betweene this place 
and Cape Porpas I lost one of my men) before 
we could recover the harbour a great fog or 
mist tooke us that we could not see a hundred 
yards from us. I perceiving the fog to come 
upon the Sea, called for a Compasse and set the 
Cape land, by which wee knew how to steare 
our course, which was no sooner done but wee 
lost sight of land, and my other boate, and the 
winde blew fresh against us, so that we were en- 
forced to strike saile and betake us to our Oares 
which wee used with all the wit and strength 
we had, but by no meanes could we recover the 
shore that night, being imbayed and compassed 
round with breaches, which roared in a most 



Christopher Levett 

fearfull manner on every side us ; wee took coun- 
sell in this extremity one of another what to doe 
to save our lives, at length we resolved that to 
put to sea againe in the night was no fit course, 
the storme being great, and the winde blowing 
right of the shore, and to runne our boate on 
the shore amongst the breaches, (which roared 
in a most fearefull manner) and cast her away 
and indanger ourselves we were loath to do, see- 
ing no land nor knowing where we were. At 
length I caused our Killick (which was all the 
Anker we had) to be cast forth, and one contin- 
ually to hold his hand upon the roode or cable, 
by which we knew whether our ancker held 
or no: which being done wee commended our 
selues to God by prayer, & put on a resolution 
to be as comfortable as we could, and so fell 
to our victuals. Thus we spent that night, and 
the next morning, with much adoe we got into 
Sawco, where I found my other boate. 

There I stayed fiue nights, the winde beinge 
contrary, and the weather very unseasonable, 
hauing much raine and snow, and continuall 

We built us our Wigwam, or house, in one 
houres space, it had no frame, but was with- 
out forme or fashion, onely a few poles set up 
together, and couered with our boates sailes 
which kept forth but a little winde, and lesse 
raigne and snow. 


Saco River 

Our greatest comfort we had, next unto that 
which was spirituall, was this we had foule 
enough for killing, wood enough for felling, 
and good fresh water enough for drinking. 

But our beds was the wet ground, and our 
bedding our wet cloaths. Wee had plenty of 
Craine, Goose, Duckes and Mallard, with other 
fowle, both boyled and rosted, but our spits and 
racks were many times in danger of burning 
before the meate was ready (being but wooden 

After I had stayed there three daies, and no 
likelyhood of a good winde to carrie vs further, 
I tooke with me six of my men, and our Armes, 
and walked along the shore, to discouer as much 
by land as I could: after I had travelled about 
two English miles I met with a riuer which 
stayed me that I could goe no further by land 
that day, but returned to our place of habitation 
where we rested that night (hauing our lodg- 
ing amended) for the day being dry I caused all 
my company to accompany mee to a marsh 
ground, where wee gathered euery man his bur- 
then of long dry grasse, which being spread in 
our Wigwam or House, I praise God I rested 
as contentedly as euer I did in all my life. And 
then came into my minde an old merry saying, 
which I haue heard of a beggar boy, who said 
if euer he should attaine to be a King, he would 
haue a breast of mutton with a pudding in it, 




Christopher Levett 

and lodge euery night vp to the eares in drye 
straw ; and thus I made myselfe and my com- 
pany as merry as I could, with this and some 
other conceits, making this vse of all, that it 
was much better then wee deserued at Gods 
hands, if he should deale with vs according to 
our sinnes. 

The next morning I caused 4 of my men 
to rowe my lesser boate to this riuer, who with 
much adoe got in myselfe, and 3 more going 
by land : but by reason of the extremitie of the 
wether we were enforced to stay there that 
night, and were constrained to sleepe vpon the 
riuer banke, being the best place wee could 
finde, the snowe being very deepe. 

The next morning wee were enforced to rise 
betime, for the tyde came vp so high that it 
washed away our fire, and would haue serued vs 
so too if we had not kept watch : So wee went 
over the riuer in our boate, where I caused 
some to stay with her, myselfe being desirous 
to discouer further by land, I tooke with me 
foure men and walked along the shore about 
sixe English miles further to the East, where I 
found another riuer, which staied mee. So we 
returned backe to Sawco, where the rest of my 
company and my other boate lay. That night 
I was exceeding sicke, by reason of the wet 
and cold and much toyling of my body : but 
thankes be to God I was indifferent well the 



next morning, and the winde being faire we 
put to sea, and that day came to §>uack. 

But before I speak of this place I must say- 
something of Sawco, and the too riuers which 
I discouered in that bay, which I thinke neuer 
Englishman saw before. 

Sawco is about one league to the North-east 
of a cape land. And about one English mile 
from the maine lieth sixe Hands, which make 
an indifferent good harbour. And in the maine 
there is a Coue or gutt, which is about a ca- 
bles length in bredth, and too cables length 
long, there two good Ships may ride, being well 
mored a head and starne; and within the Coue 
there is a great Marsh, where at a high water 
a hundredth sayle of Ships may floate, and be 
free from all winds, but at low water must ly 
a ground, but being soft oase they can take no 

In this place there is a world of fowle, much 
good timber, and a great quantetie of cleare 
ground and good, if it be not a little too sandy. 
There hath beene more fish taken within too 
leagues of this place this yeare then in any other 
in the land. 

The riuer next to Sawco eastwards, which I 
discovered by land, and after brought my boat 
into, is the strangest river that ever my eyes 
beheld. It flowes at the least ten foot water up- 
right, and yet the ebbe runs so strong that the 





Christopher Levett 

tyde doth not stem it. At three quarters floud 
my men were scarce able with foure Oares to 
rowe ahead. And more then that, at full Sea I 
dipped my hand in the water, quite without the 
mouth of the River, in the very main Ocean, 
and it was as fresh as though it had been taken 
from the head of a Spring. 

This River, as I am told by the Salvages, 
commeth from a great mountaine called the 
Christall hill, being as they say ioo miles in 
the Country, yet is it to be seene at the sea 
side, and there is no ship ariues in New Eng- 
land, either to the West so farre as Cape Cod, or 
to the East so farre as Monbiggen, but they see 
this Mountaine the first land, if the weather be 

The next river Eastward which I discovered 
by land, is about sixe miles from the other. 
About these two riuers I saw much good timber 
and sandy ground, there is also much fowle, 
fish and other commodities: but these places 
are not fit for plantation for the present, be- 
cause there is no good comming in, either for 
ship, or boate, by reason of a sandy breach 
which lyeth alongst the shore, and makes all 
one breach. 

And now in its place I come to Quack, 
which I haue named Torke. At this place there 
fished divers ships of Waymouth this yeare. 

It lyeth about two leagues to the East of 


Portland Harbour 


Cape Elizabeth. It is a Bay or Sound betwixt 
the Maine and certaine Hands which lyeth in 
the sea about one English mile and halfe. 

There are foure Hands which makes one 
good harbour, there is very good fishing, much 
fowle and the mayne as good ground as any 
can desire. There I found one River wherein 
the Savages say there is much Salmon and other 
good fish. In this Bay, there hath ben taken 
this yeare 4. Sturgions, by fishermen who driue 
only for Herrings, so that it is likely there may 
be good store taken if there were men fit for 
that purpose. This River I made bold to call by 
my owne name Levetts river, being the first that 
discovered it. How farre this river is Navigable 
I cannot tell, I haue ben but 6. miles up it, but 
on both sides is goodly ground. 

In the same Bay I found another River, up 
which I went about three miles, and found a 
great fall, of water much bigger than the fall 
at London bridge, at low water ; further a boate 
cannot goe, but above the fall the River runnes 
smooth againe. 

lust at this fall of water the Sagamore or 
King of that place hath a house, where I was 
one day when there were two Sagamors more, 
their wiues and children, in all about 50. and we 
were but 7. They bid me welcome and gaue 
me such victualls as they had, and I gaue them 
Tobacco and Aqua vitas. 






Christopher Levett 



After I had spent a little time with them I 
departed & gaue them a small shot, and they 
gaue me another. And the great Sagamore of 
the East country, whom the rest doe acknow- 
ledge to be chiefe amongst them, hee gaue unto 
me a Bevers skin, which I thankfully received, 
and so in great loue we parted. On both sides 
this river there is goodly ground. 

From this harbour to Sagadahock, which is 
about 8. or 9. leagues, is all broken Hands in the 
Sea, which makes many excellent good Har- 
bours, where a thousand saile of Shipps may ride 
in safety; the sound going up within the Hands 
to the Cape of Sagadahock. 

In the way betwixt Torke and Sagadahock 
lyeth Cascoe, a good harbour, good fishing, good 
ground, and much fowle. And I am perswaded 
that from Cape Elizabeth to Sagadahock, which 
is aboue 30 leagues to follow the Maine, is 
all exceeding commodious for Plantations: and 
that there may be 20 good Townes well seated, 
to take the benefit both of the sea, and fresh 

For Sagadahock I need say nothing of it, 
there hath been heeretofore enough said by 
others, and I feare me too much. But the place 
is good, there fished this yeare two ships. 

The next place I came to was Capemanwa- 
gan, a place where nine ships fished this yeare. 
But I like it not for a plantation, for I could see 


Boothbay Harbour 


little good timber & lesse good ground, there I 
stayed foure nights, in which time, there came 
many Savages with their wiues and children, 
and some of good accompt amongst them, as 
Menawormet a Sagamore, Cogawesco the Saga- 
more of Casco and §>uack, now called Torke, 
Somerset, a Sagamore, one that hath ben found 
very faithfull to the English, and hath saved 
the Hues of many of our Nation, some from 
starving, others from killing. 

They entended to haue ben gone presently, 
but hearing of my being there, they desired to 
see me, which I understood by one of the Mas- 
ters of the Ships, who likewise told me that 
they had some store of Beauer coats and skinnes, 
and was going to Pei?iaquid to truck with one 
Mr. Witheridge, a Master of a ship of Bastable, 
and desired me to use meanes that they should 
not carry them out of the harbour, I wisht them 
to bring all their truck to one Mr. Cokes stage, 
& I would do the best I could to put it away : 
some of them did accordingly, and I then sent for 
the Sagamores, who came, and after some com- 
plements they told me I must be their cozen, 
and that Captaine Gorges was so, (which you 
may imagine I was not a little proud of, to be 
adopted cozen to so many great Kings at one 
instant, but did willingly accept of it) and so 
passing away a little time very pleasantly, they 
desired to be gone, whereupon I told them that 



Christopher Levett 

I understood they had some coates and Beauers 
skins which I desired to truck for but they were 
unwilling, and I seemed carelesse of it (as men 
must doe if they desire any thing of them.) But 
at last Somerset swore that there should be none 
carryed out of the harbour, but his cozen Levett 
should haue all, and then they began to offer 
me some by way of gift, but I would take none 
but one paire of sleeues from Cogawesco, but 
told them it was not the fashion of English 
Captaines alwaies to be taking, but sometimes 
to take and giue, and continually to truck was 
very good. But in fine, we had all except one 
coate and two skinnes, which they reserved to 
pay an old debt with, but they staying all that 
night, had them stole from them. 

In the morning the Sagamores came to mee 
with a grieuous complaint, I vsed the best lan- 
guage I could to giue them content, and went 
with them to some Stages which they most 
suspected, and seached both Cabins and Chests, 
but found none. They seeing my willingnesse 
to finde the theefe out, gaue mee thankes, and 
wished me to forbeare saying the Rogues had 
carried them into the woods where I could not 
find them. 

When they were ready to depart they asked 
mee where I meant to settle my plantation. 
I told them I had seene many places to the 
west, and intended to goe farther to the east 


Portland Harbour 


before I could resolue, they sayed there was no 
good place, and I had heard, that Pemoquid and 
Capmanwagan, and Monhiggon were granted to 
others, & the best time for fishing was then 
at hand, which made me the more willing to 
retire, and the rather because Cogaivesco, the 
Sagamore of Casco and §>uacke, told me if that I 
would sit downe at either of those two places, 
I should be very welcome, and that he and his 
wife would goe along with me in my boate to 
see them, which curtesy I had no reason to re- 
fuse, because, I had set vp my resolution before 
to settle my plantation at ^uacke, which I named 
Torke, and was glad of this oppertunity, that 
I had obtained the consent of them who as I 
conceiue hath a naturall right of inheritance, as 
they are the sonnes of Noah, and therefore doe 
thinke it fit to carry things very fairely with- 
out compulsion, (if it be posible) for avoyding 
of treacherie. 

The next day the winde came faire, and 
I sayled to ^uacke or Torke, with the King, 
Queene, and Prince, bowe and arrowes, dogge 
and kettell in my boate, his noble attendance 
rowing by vs in their Cannow. 

When we came to Torke the Masters of the 
Shippes came to bid me welcome, and asked 
what Sauages those were, I told them, and I 
thanked them, they vsed them kindly, & gaue 
them meate, drinke and tobacco. The woman 



Christopher Levett 

or reputed Queene, asked me if those men were 
my friends, I told her they were ; then she dranke 
to them, and told them, they were welcome to 
her Countrey, and so should all my friends be 
at any time, she dranke also to her husband, 
and bid him welcome to her Countrey too, for 
you must vnderstand that her father was the 
Sagamore of this place, and left it to her at his 
death hauing no more Children. 

And thus after many dangers, much labour 
and great charge, I haue obtained a place of 
habitation in New- England, where I haue built 
a house, and fortified it in a reasonable good 
fashion, strong enough against such enemies 
as are those Sauage people. 

How the Sauages carried themselues 
vnto me continually, and of my 
going to their Kings Houses : and 
their comming to mine. 

WHILEST I staied in this place I had 
some little trucke, but not much, 
by reason of an euill member in the 
Harbour, who being couetous of trucke vsed 
the matter so, that he got the Sauages away 
from me. 

And it is no wonder that he should abuse 


Portland Harbour 

2 75 

me in this sort, for he hath not spared your 
Lordshipps and all the Counsell for New-Eng- 

He said vnto the Gouernour that the Lords 
had sent men ouer into that Countrey with Com- 
missions, to make a prey of others. And yet for 
my owne part I neuer demanded or tooke from 
any man in that Countrey, the value of a denier 
neither had I so much helpe, from any Shippe 
or Shippes companie as one mans labour the 
space of an houre, nor, had I any prouision 
or victuall vpon any tearmes whatsoeuer, saue 
onely 1000. of bread, and 22. bushells of pease, 
which was offered vnto mee and not by me re- 
quested, for which I gaue present satisfaction 
in Beuer skines : and also one Rownlet of Aqua 
vitce, which was brought to me 1 6 Leagues vn- 
expected, which good manners bid me buy. 
Much more provision was offered to me by many 
Masters of Ships, but I had no need thereof, 
so I gaue them thanks for their kindnesse, and 
refused all. 

Nay, it is well knowne, that I was so farre 
from doing wrong to any : that I suffered the 
Land which was granted to me by Pattent and 
made choyce of before any other man came 
there, to be used, and my timber to be cut 
downe & spoyled, without taking or asking 
any satisfaction for the same. And I doubt not 
but all others to whom you gaue authoritie, 



Christopher Levett 

will sufficiently cleare themselues of all such 

He said also he cared not for any authoritie in 
that place and though he was forbid to trucke 
yet would he haue all he could get: in despite of 
who should say to the contrary, having a great 
Ship with 17. peeces of Ordinance and 50. men. 

And indeed his practise was according to his 
words, for every Sunday or once in the weeke, 
he went himselfe or sent a boate up the river 
and got all the trucke before they could come 
downe to the Harbour. And so many Savages 
as he could get to his stage, hee would enforce 
them to leaue their goods behind them. One 
instance a mongst many I will giue you. 

On a certaine day there came two Savages to 
his place, who were under the command of Som- 
erset or Conway, I know not whether, at which 
time they were both with me at my house, but 
the other two who went to him, knew not so 
much, but afterwards they understanding of it, 
came presently over, but left their Cotts and 
Beauer skins behind them, whereat Somerset and 
Conway were exceeding angrie and were ready 
to beate the poore fellows, but I would not 
suffer them so to doe. They presently went over 
the Harbor themselues in their Cannow to fetch 
their goods, but this man would let them haue 
none, but wished them to truck with him, they 
told him they would not, but would carry them 


Indian Trade 


to Captaine Levett, he said Levett was no cap- 
taine, but a Iacknape, a poore fellow, &c. They 
told him againe that he was a Roague, with 
some other speeches, whereupon he and his 
company fell upon them & beate them both, in 
so much that they came to me in a great rage 
against him, and said they would be revenged 
on his Fishermen at sea, and much adoe I had 
to diswade one of them for going into Etigland 
to tell King James of it, as he said ; when they 
came to me in this rage, there was two or three 
Masters of Shippes by, and heard every word. 

But all this did me no hurt, (saue the losse 
of the trucke, which by divers was thought to 
be worth above 50. li.) for the two Sagamores 
whom he inticed from me, and incensed against 
me, at length used meanes to be freinds with 
me, sending one who asked me, if I were angrie 
with them, I told them no, I was not angrie 
with them for any such matter as lowsie Cotts 
and skinnes, but if they were Matchett, that 
is, naughtie men, and rebellious, then I would 
be Mouchick Hoggery, that is very angry, and 
would Cram, that is, kill them all. 

When they came them selues to me to seeke 
peace, they brought me a Beauer Coate, and two 
Otter skines, which they would have let me had 
for nothing, but I would not take them so, but 
gaue them more then vsually I did by way of 
Trucke, I then told them likewise that if at any 



Christopher Levett 

time they did Trucke with mee, they should 
haue many good things in leiu of their Beauer : 
and if they did not Trucke it was no matter, 
I would be good friends with them, at which 
they smiled and talked one to the other, say- 
ing the other man was a Iacknape, and that I 
had the right fashion of the Aberieney Sagamores, 
then they began to applaude or rather flatter 
me, saying I was so bigge a Sagamore, yea foure 
fathom, which were the best words they could 
vse to expresse their minds : I replied that I was 
a poore man as he had reported of mee. They 
said againe it was no matter what I said, or that 
Iacknape (which is the most disgracefull word 
that may be in their conceite,) for all the Sag- 
amores in the Country loued poore Levett and 
was Muchicke sorrie that he would be gon, and 
indeed I cannot tell what I should thinke of 
them, for euer after they would bring mee any 
thing they thought would giue mee content, as 
Egges and the whole bodyes of Beauer, which 
in my concite eate like Lambe, and is not inferi- 
our to it : yea the very coats of Beauer & Otter- 
skinnes from off their backes, which though I 
many time refused, yet not allwaies, but I neuer 
tooke any such courtesie from them, but I re- 
quited them answerably, chusing rather to neg- 
lect the present profit, then the hopes I haue 
to bring them to better things, which I hope 
will be for a publicke good, and which I am 


Indian 'Trade 


perswaded were a greeuous sinne, to neglect for 
any sinister end. 

And a little before my departure there came 
these Sagamores to see mee, Sadamoyt, the great 
Sagamore of the East Countrey, Manawormet, 
Opparunwit, Skedraguscett, Cogawesco, Somersett, 
Conway and others. 

They asked me why I would be gone out of 
their Countrey, I was glad to tell them my wife 
would not come thither except I did fetch her, 
they bid a pox on her hounds, (a phrase they 
have learned and doe vse when they doe curse) 
and wished me to beate her. I told them no, 
for then our God would bee angrie. Then they 
runne out vpon her in euil tearmes, and wished 
me to let her alone and take another, I told 
them our God would be more angrie for that. 
Againe they bid me beate her, beate her, repeat- 
ing it often, and very angerly, but I answered 
no, that was not the English fashion, and besides, 
she was a good wife and I had children by her, 
and I loued her well, so I satisfied them. Then 
they told me that I and my wife and Children, 
with all my friends, should bee hartily welcome 
into that Countrey at any time, yea a hundreth 
thousand times, yea Mouchicke, Mouchicke, which 
is a word of waight. 

And Somersett tould that his Sonne (who was 
borne, whilst I was in the Countrey, and whom 
hee would needs haue to Name) and mine should 



Christopher Levett 

be Brothers and that there should be muchicke 
legamatch, (that is friendship) betwixt them, 
untill Tanto carried them to his wigwam, (that 
is vntill that they died.) 

Then they must know of mee how long I 
would be wanting, I told them so many Months, 
at which they seemed to be well pleased, but 
wisht me to take heede I proued not Chechaske 
in that (that is, a lier.) They asked me what I 
would doe with my house, I told them I would 
leaue 10. of my men there vntill I came againe, 
and that they should kill all the Tarrantens 
they should see (being enimies to them) and 
with whom the English haue no commarsse. 
At which they reioyced exceedingly, and then 
agreed amongst themselues that when the time 
should be expired, which I spoke of for my 
returne, euery one at the place where he liued 
would looke to the Sea, and when they did see 
a Ship they wold send to all the Sagamores in 
the Countrey, and tell them that poore Levett 
was come againe. And thus insteed of doing 
me hurt, I thinke that either he or I haue done 
good to all Planters, by winning their affections, 
(which may bee made vse of without trusting 
of them.) 

But if your Lordship should put up this 
wrong done unto you, and the Authority which 
you gaue them, never expect to be obeyed in 
those parts, either by Planters or Fishermen; 


Portland Harbour 


for some haue not stucke to say, that if such a 
man, contemning authority, and abusing one of 
the counsell, and drawing his knife upon him 
at his own house, which he did, should goe un- 
punished, then would not they care what they 
did heereafter. 

And truely let me tell your Lordships, that if 
euer you intend to punish any for disobedience, 
or contempt of authority, this man is a fit instru- 
ment to make a president of, for he is rich, and 
this yeare will gaine the best part of 500 pounds 
by that Countrie, and he hath nether wife nor 
childe, for whose sakes he should be spared. 

And if he goe free, as hee has domineered 
over vs, to whom your Lordships gaue author- 
ity, but no power to put it in execution, so will 
he grow unmannerly too with your Lordships, 
as hee hath already begunne. 

And it will discourage men hereafter to take 
any authority upon them, or to goe about to 
reforme any abuses in those parts, and also it 
will hinder Planters for going over, if Fisher- 
men be suffered not onely to take away their 
truck, but also to animate the Sauages against 
them, for this is the way to cause all Planters 
to haue their throats cut. 

But I leaue these things to your Lo. consid- 
eration, who haue as well power as authority 
to punish such rebellious persons. 

Thus hauing acquainted you with what I 



Christopher Levett 

haue done, seen and heard; now giue me leaue 
to tell you what I thinke of the Savages, the 
inhabitants of that country : as also to iustifie 
the innocent, I meane the Countrie of New- 
England, against the slanderous reports of this 
man, and some others which I haue heard, and 
likewise to deliver my opinion, what courses I 
conceiue to be most convenient to be taken, 
for bringing most glorie to God, comfort, honor 
and benefit to our King, and our owne Natiue 


The nature and disposition of the 
Savages, and of their severall Gods, 
Squanto and Tanto. 

I HAUE had much conference with the 
Savages, about our only true God, and haue 
done my best to bring them to know and 
acknowledge him, but I feare me all the labour 
that way, will be lost, and no good will be done, 
except it be among the younger sort. 

I find they haue two Gods, on they love: and 
the other they hate : the god they loue, they call 
Squanto, and to him they ascribe all their good 

The god they hate they call Tanto, and to 
him they ascribe all their euill fortunes, as thus, 


Indian Gods 


when any is killed, hurt or sicke, or when it is 
evill wether, then they say Tanto is hoggry, that 
is angry. When any dyes, they say Tanto carries 
them to his wigwam, that is his house, and they 
never see them more. 

I haue asked them where Squanto dwells, they 
say they cannot tell but up on high, and will 
poynt upwards. And for Tanto, they say farre 
west, but they know not where. 

I haue asked them if at any time they haue 
seene Squanto, or Tanto, they say no, there is 
none sees them, but their Pawwawes, nor they 
neither, but when they dreame. 

Their Pawwawes are their Phisitians and 
Surgions, and as I verely beleeue they are all 
Witches, for they foretell of ill wether, and 
many strange things, every Sagamore hath one 
of them belongs to his company, and they are 
altogether directed by them. 

On a time I was at a Sagamores house and saw 
a Martins skin, and asked if he would trucke it, 
the Sagamore told me no, the Pawwawe used to 
lay that under his head when he dreamed, and 
if he wanted that, he could doe nothing, thus 
we may perceiue how the devill deludes those 
poore people and keep them in blindnesse. 

I find them generally to be marvellous quicke 
of apprehension, and full of subteltie, they will 
quickely find any man's disposition, and flatter 
& humour him strangely, if they hope to get 



Christopher Levett 

anything of him. And yet will they count him 
a foole if he doe not shew a dislike of it, and 
will say on to another, that such a man is a 

They are slow of speech, and if they heare a 
man speake much they will laugh at him, and 
say he is a Mechecum, that is a foole. 

If men of place be to familiar with them, 
they will not respect them : therefore it is to 
be wished that all such persons should be wise 
in their Carriage. 

The Sagamores will scarce speake to an ordi- 
nary man, but will point to their men, and say 
Sanops, must speake to Sanops, and Sagamors to 

They are very bloudy minded and full of 
Tracherie amongst themselues, one will kill 
another for their wiues, and he that hath the 
most wiues is the brauest fellow : therefore I 
would wish no man to trust them, what euer 
they say or doe ; but alwaies to keepe a strickt 
hand ouer them, and yet to vse them kindly, 
and deale vprightly with them ; so shall they 
please God, keepe their reputation amongst 
them, and be free from danger. 

Their Sagamors are no Kings, as I verilie 
beleeue, for I can see no Government or Law 
amongst them but Club Law : and they call 
all Masters of Shippes Sagamore, or any other 
man, that they see have a commaund of men. 


Native Customs 


Their wiues are their slaves, and doe all their 
worke the men will doe nothing but kill Beasts, 
Fish, &c. 

On a time reasoning with one of their Saga- 
mors about their hauing so many wiues, I tould 
him it was no good fashion, he then asked mee 
how many wiues King 'James had, I told him he 
neuer had but one, and shee was dead, at which 
he wondred, and asked mee who then did all 
the Kings worke. You may Imagin he thought 
their fashion was vniuersal and that no King had 
any to worke for them but their wiufs. 

They haue no apparrell but skinnes, except 
they haue it from the English, or French, in win- 
ter they weare the haire side inwards, in sum- 
mer outwards. They haue a peece of a skinne 
about their loines like a girdle and between their 
legges goes another, made fast to the girdles 
before and behind, which serues to couer their 
nakednesse, they are all thus apparrelled, going 
bare headed with long haire, sometimes you 
shall not know the men from women but by 
their breasts, the men having no haire on their 

When their Children are borne they bind 
them on a peece of board, and sets it vpright, 
either against a tree or any other place. They 
keep them thus bound vntill they be three 
months old, and after they are continuall naked 
vntill they be about flue or sixe yeares. 



Christopher Levett 


Yee shall haue them many times take their 
Children & bury them in the snow all but 
their faces for a time, to make them the better 
to endure cold, and when they are not aboue 2. 
yeares old, they will take them and cast them 
into the Sea, like a little dogge or Cat, to learne 
them to swimme. 

Their weapons are bowes and arrowes, I 
never saw more then two fowling peeces, one 
pistall, about foure Halfe-pikes, and three Curt- 
laces amongst them, so that we neede not to 
feare them much, if wee auoid their Treach- 

Their houses are built in halfe an houres space 
being onely a few powles or boughes stucke in 
the ground and couered with the barkes of 

Their Language differs as English & Welch. 
On a time the Gouernour was at my house, and 
brought with him a Salvage, who liued not 
aboue 70. miles from the place which I haue 
made choise of, who talking with another Sau- 
age, they were glad to vse broken English to ex- 
presse their mind each to other, not being able 
to vnderstand one another in their Language. 

And to say something of the Countrey : I 
will not doe therein as some haue done, to my 
knowledge speak more then is true : I will not 
tell you that you may smell the corne fields be- 
fore you see the Land, neither must men thinke 


Coast of Maine 


that corne doth growe naturally (or on trees,) 
nor will the Deare come when they are called, 
or stand still and looke one a man, untill he 
shute him, not knowing a man from a beast, 
nor the fish leape into the kettle, nor on the drie 
Land, neither are they so plentifull, that you 
may dipp them up in baskets, nor take Codd in 
netts to make a voyage, which is no truer : then 
that the fowles will present themselues, to you 
with spitts through them. 

But certainely there is fowle, Deare, and Fish 
enough for the taking if men be diligent, there 
be also Vines, Plume trees, Cherry trees, Straw- 
beries, Gooseberies, and Raspes, Walnutts, ches- 
nut, and small nuts, of each great plenty ; there 
is also great store of parsley, and divers other 
holesome Earbes, both for profit and pleasure, 
with great store of Saxifrage, Cersa-perilla, and 

And for the ground there is large & goodly 
Marsh to make meddow, higher land for pas- 
ture and corne. 

There be these severall sorts of earth, which 
I haue seene, as, Clay, Sand, Grauill, yea and as 
blacke fatt earth, as ever I sawe in England in 
all my life. 

There are likewise these helpes for ground, 
as Seasand, Oreworth or Wracke, Marie blew and 
white, and some men say there is Lime, but I 
must confesse I neuer saw any Lime-stone : but 



Christopher Levett 

I haue tried the Shels of Fish, and I find them 
to be good Lime. 

Now let any husbandman tell mee, whither 
there be any feare of hauing any kind of Corne, 
hauing these seuerall kinds of Earth with these 
helpes, the Climat being full as good if not bet- 
ter than England. 

I dare be bold to say also, there may be 
Shippes as conueniently built there as in any 
place of the world, where, I haue beene, and 
better cheape. As for Plancke, crooked Tim- 
ber, and all other sorts what so euer can be de- 
sired for such purpose, the world cannot afford 
better. Masts and Yeards of all sises, there be 
allso Trees growing, whereof Pitch and Tarre 
is made. 

And for Sailes and all sorts of Cordish you 
neede not to want, if you will but sowe Hempe 
and Flaxseede, and after worke it. Now there 
wants nothing but Iron, and truely I thinke 
I haue seene Iron-stones there, but I must 
acknowledge I haue no great iudgement in 
Mineralls, yet I haue seene the Iron-workes 
in England, and this Stone is like ours. But 
howsoever if the Countrie will not afford Iron, 
yet it may be easilie brought, for it is good 
Ballast for Shippes. 

There is also much excellent Timber for 
Ioyners and Coopers : howsoeuer a worthy No- 
ble man hath beene abused, who sent ouer some 


Coast of Maine 


to make Pippe-staues, who either for want of 
skill or industrie, did no good. Yet I dare say no 
place in England can afford better Timber for 
Pippe-staues, then foure seuerall places which 
I haue seene in that Countrey. 

Thus haue I relaited vnto you what I haue 
seene, and doe know may be had in those parts 
of New- England where I haue beene, yet was I 
neuer at the Mesachusett, which is counted the 
Paradise of New-England, nor at Cape Ann. But 
I feare there hath been too faire a glosse set on 
Cape Ann. I am told there is a good Harbour 
which makes a faire Inuitation, but when they 
are in, their entertainement is not answerable, 
for there is little good ground, and the Shippes 
which fished there this yeare, their boats went 
twenty miles to take their Fish, and yet they 
were in great feare of making their Voyages, as 
one of the Masters confessed vnto me who was 
at my house. 

Neither was I at New-Plimoth, but I feare 
that place is not so good as many other, for if 
it were in my conceite they would content 
themselues with it and not seeke for any other 
hauing ten times so much ground as would 
serue ten times so many people as they haue 
now amongst them. But it seemes they haue 
no Fish to make benifit of, for this yeare they 
had one Shippe Fisht at Pemoquid, and an other 
at Cape Ann, where they haue begun a new 



Christopher Levett 

Plantation, but how long it will continew I 
know not. 

Neither was I ever farther to the West then 
the lies of Shoulds. 

Thus have I done with my commendations 
of the Countrie. I will now speake the worst 
I know by it. 

About the middle of May you shall haue 
little Flies, called Musketoes, which are like 
Gnatts, they continue as I am told, vntill the 
last of July. These are very troublesome for the 
time, for they sting exceedingly both night and 
day. But I found by experience that bootes or 
thicke stockings would saue the legges, gloues 
the hands, and tifFeney or some such things 
which will not much hinder the sight will saue 
the face, and at night any smoake will secure 
a man. 

The reason of the aboundance of these crea- 
tures, I take to be the woods which hinders the 
aire, for I haue obserued allwaies when the 
winde did blow but a little, we were not much 
troubled with them. 

And I verily thinke that if there were a good 
number of people planted together, and that the 
woods were cut downe, the earth were tilled, 
and the rubbish which lieth on the ground 
wherein they breed were burnt, and that there 
were many chimneyes smoaking, such small 
creatures would doe but little hurt. 


Coast of Maine 


Another euill or inconuenience I see there, 
the snow in winter did lie very long vpon the 

But I understand that all the parts of Chris- 
tendome, were troubled with a cold winter 
so well as wee. Yet would I aske any man 
what hurt snow doeth ? The husbandman will 
say that Corne is the better for it. And I hope 
Cattell may bee as well fed in the house there 
as in England, Scotland, and other Countries, and 
he is but an ill husband that cannot find im- 
ployments for his seruants within doores for 
that time. As for Wiues and Children if they 
bee wise they will keepe themselues close by a 
good fire, and for men they will haue no occa- 
sion to ride to Faires or Markets, Sysses or Ses- 
sions, only Hawkes and Hounds will not then 
be vsefull. 

Yet let me tell you that it is still almost 
Christmas before there be any winter there, so 
that the cold time doth not continue long. 

And by all reason that Countrey should be 
hotter then England, being many Degrees far- 
ther from the North Pole. 

And thus according to my poore understand- 
ing I haue given you the best information I can 
of the people and Country, commodities and 
discommodities. Now giue mee leaue to op- 
pose myselfe against the man beforementioned, 
and others, who speaks against the Country, and 



Christopher Levett 

plantations in those parts, and to set down such 
obiections as I haue heard them make, and my 
answers, and afterward let wisedome iudge : for 
my desire is, that the saddle may be set on the 
right horse, and the Asse may be rid, and the 
knaue punished, either for discouraging or in- 
couraging too much, whosoeuer he be. 



New England 






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